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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PST

A Tour of Various Draft Farms
A Tour of Various Draft Farms

Three-abreast on the spreader at Northland Sheep Dairy.

A Tour of Various Draft Farms

by Tim Biello of Cazenovia, NY and Nathan Henderson of Essex, NY
photos courtesy of Donn Hewes, Ken Laing, Tony McQuail, and Karma Glos

From how you set up your farm’s infrastructure to accommodate the use of draft animals to the ways in which you actually work them on a day-to-day basis, there are many different systems one can develop to farm with live power. Now, if you ask around enough, you’ll likely be able to find folks who will tell you how it ought to be done. But the truth is there is no one way to do it. Even though there are fairly consistent conditions that using live power presents — daily care such as feeding and watering, particular equipment needs, pasture and manure management, and so on — they yield an incredible variety of responses. This is why we set out to tour draft powered farms, to see the variety firsthand.

At the time of our tour, in the fall of 2011, Nathan and I were farming at Essex Farm in Essex, NY. Nathan came to Essex Farm in the fall of 2010, after farming for two years in Ontario, Canada at Meeting Place Organic Farm. Having worked and managed there for two years, Nathan was searching for his next step, which he thought might be finding his own land and starting his own farm. While returning to New England, he visited Essex to see their horse systems and to learn about their full diet CSA. The visit turned into employment and he decided to stay there and work for the year. That’s how we met. I had been at Essex Farm since 2009, working variously as a dairy manager, vegetable manager and teamster. In 2011, I had gone to a part-time schedule so as to keep up with farming and stay near to my horses — I’d purchased a team in 2010 and they were worked and boarded at Essex Farm — while using my off-farm time to search for land. Nathan and I became immediate friends and spent a lot of time talking about the various farms we’d worked on, visited or knew about. We both had plans to get our own farms and we enjoyed comparing ideas. After a lot of storytelling, and some fact checking, we decided that instead of only talking about the different ways to set up and run a draft powered farm we should go visit some.

A Tour of Various Draft Farms

Cultivating strawberry beds at Orchard Hill Farm.

We wanted to see how others were farming using draft power. What tools are they using and how have they set up their farming systems to work with their draft animals? We also wanted to connect with other teamsters. And we wanted to spark ideas for our own farms. (Sure, technically, we don’t have these farms yet, but we plan to!) So we set out to visit draft powered farms and farmers, ranging from Ontario, Canada to Western NY to Pennsylvania. In the end, we traveled more than 1,500 miles, which took us more than 30 hours of driving, and at every home we were greeted with warm smiles and great food.

The common thread for the farms we visited was the use of draft power. From there the business models and life styles varied significantly. We saw farms that earned their income from CSAs, farmers’ markets, direct marketing and wholesaling. Many used a combination of these marketing strategies. Some farms grew only vegetables, some focused on animal husbandry and others combined multiple aspects of diversified farming. We saw the ubiquitous horse drawn tools — such as manure spreaders, plows, harrows and cultivators — as well as unique horse equipment, like an implement designed to deliver round bales in the winter or a homemade power forecart. In a way, the diversity in the farms we visited is a testament to the flexibility of the draft horse model.

A Tour of Various Draft Farms

Discing with four-abreast at Meeting Place Organic Farm.

At every farm we visited, we saw both similar systems as well as unique combinations of infrastructure and systems to complement their use of draft power. While it makes sense, for example, to try to store your hay in a close and convenient location to where you will be stabling and/or overwintering your horses, exactly how you do that depends on your goals and your farm’s set up. At Meeting Place organic farm, the McQuails store round bales in the field, stacked and covered in a manner that allows them to be removed as needed, then drawn to and spread in the desired location using their homemade round bale implement. In this way, they spread the fertility of the hay and feeding-animal’s manure to targeted areas with lower fertility in their fields. Others, such as Michael and Karma Glos of Kingbird Farm, store their hay as well as their grains above their horse’s stables to let gravity do some of the work. Or, at Orchard Hill, Ken and Martha Lang store their hay in the barn adjacent to their horses’ stables, which are themselves adjacent to the pig pens that are set a level below the horse stables. With this set up, the horses are easily fed and their manure and bedding is easily pushed into the pig pens. From there, once the manure is made ready by the rooting pigs, it’s loaded into a spreader. These are just some examples of different ways to organize one’s barn. The variations between farms, in systems and infrastructure, seem to be endless, even though so many of the fundamental reasons (i.e. the horses need to eat in the winter!) are the same.

A farm is an expression of the farmer, and visiting a farmer’s farm is to begin to know that farmer more intimately. With each farm we visited, we not only saw the agricultural choices they made, but they invited us into their lives and shared their time and homes with us. We were able to see how their farms have been tailored by their varied land base, infrastructure, access to capital, production systems, personal beliefs, farming values and quality of life values.

A Tour of Various Draft Farms

Feeding out round bales at Meeting Place Organic Farm.

For example, many of the draft powered farms that we saw made the choice to have a small tractor with a bucket loader. This tractor could stand in for horses in the field or operate PTO driven machines, as well as use the bucket to move manure or other heavy things. On the other hand, some draft farmers consciously choose not to use any tractor power. Instead, they had developed other systems to take the place of the tractors. We saw the adaptation of team implements for use with a single horse, for when one horse is lame; we saw the use of pig composting systems to turn and stir compost without a bucket loader; and we talked about loose hay systems to avoid the use of PTO driven hay-baling systems. There were also farmers that had tractors but who avoided using them when possible.

It sometimes helps to remember that caring for draft horses and running a farm that uses live power is a responsive, creative and on-going process. It is present in the keeping of the horses. It is present in the equipment that draft farmers buy and modify. It is present in the ways that their barns are built and utilized. It is present in the systems they institute so as to be able to take time off (sweet, sweet time off!). Learning about this variety, and the different reasons for each similar and unique set up, helped us to think about our own plans and how we might set up our own farms in the future. Seeing this variety also relieved some of the stresses of needing to have everything figured out upfront. It became more manageable to “figure it out” because it became less predefined and more personalized, less certain and more adaptable, less requisite and more up to us.

A Tour of Various Draft Farms

Cultivating in the hoop house at Kingbird Farm.

On our tour, we connected with a host of friendly farmers ready to share their lives and experiences, to demo their equipment and their infrastructure, to explain their farm decisions and always ready to swap ideas about farming with us. It was fun. It was friend-filled. It was inspiring. It reminded us that we all have different skills and different interests and different life goals that ultimately make our farms different from one another. And this is good. This variety continually creates new designs, new tools and new ways for succeeding on our draft-powered farms. Amidst all of the possibility that is out there, all of the options and uncertainties, it helps to remember that there is also a strong community in the draft-farming world. There are a great many like-minded yet still diverse people working with draft horses and ready to share their experiences. What will serve us well within this great variety of farms and farmers is to keep in touch, to learn from one another’s good ideas and mistakes, to share what works and what doesn’t and, last but not least, to keep on farming with draft power.

A Tour of Various Draft Farms

Spotlight On: How-To & Plans

Soil, Vegetation, and Acidity

From Dusty Shelves: Audels Gardeners and Growers Guide teaches us about soil acidity.

Homemade Ground-Drive PTO Forecart

Homemade Ground-Drive PTO Forecart

by:
from issue:

As we start, consider a few things when building a pto cart. Are big drive tires necessary? Is a lot of weight needed? Imagine the cart in use. Try to see it working where you normally go and where you almost never go. Will it be safe and easy to mount or dismount? Can you access the controls of the implement conveniently? Is it easy to hook and unhook? Where is the balance point? I’m sure you will think of other details as you daydream about it.

Permanent Corncribs

A short piece on the construction of corncribs.

Book Review Butchering

Two New Butchering Volumes

Danforth’s BUTCHERING is an unqualified MASTERPIECE! One which actually gives me hope for the furtherance of human kind and the ripening of good farming everywhere because, in no small part, of this young author’s sensitive comprehension of the modern disconnect with food, feeding ourselves, and farming.

Blacksmithing Secrets

Blacksmithing Secrets Part 2

by:
from issue:

One of the main advantages of having a forge in the farm shop is to be able to redress and make and temper tools like cold chisels, punches, screw drivers, picks, and wrecking bars. Tool steel for making cold chisels and punches and similar tools may be bought from a blacksmith or ordered through a hardware store; or it may be secured from parts of old machines, such as hay-rake teeth, pitchfork tines, and axles and drive shafts from old automobiles.

How To Dry Up A Doe Goat

How To Dry Up A Doe Goat

You are probably thinking why would I want to dry up a doe? If the plan is to rebreed the doe, then she will need time to rebuild her stamina. Milk production takes energy. Kid production takes energy, too. If the plan is to have a fresh goat in March, then toward the end of October start to dry her up. The first thing to do is cut back on her grain. Grain fuels milk production.

A Horse Powered Round Bale Unroller

A Horse Powered Round Bale Unroller

by:
from issue:

We had experimented with unrolling the bales the year before and had decided to make a device that would let us move them with the horses and then unroll them. I used square tubing to make a simple frame with two arms attached to a cross piece which connected to a tongue. Small diagonal braces made the arrangement rigid and the arms had a right angle piece of square tubing on their ends which allowed a pin to be driven into the middle of the round bale from each side.

The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

Cultivating Questions: The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

It took several incarnations to come up with a satisfactory design for the bottom heated greenhouse bench. In the final version we used two 55 gallon drums welded end-to-end for the firebox and a salvaged piece of 12” stainless steel chimney for the horizontal flue. We learned the hard way that a large firebox and flue are necessary to dissipate the intense heat into the surrounding air chamber and to minimize heat stress on these components.

Horse Powered Snow Fencing and Sleigh Fencing

Horse Powered Snow Fencing and Sleigh Fencing

by:
from issue:

We were planning on having our cattle out in a sheltered field for the winter but a busy fall and early snows meant our usual fencing tool was going to be ineffective. Through the grazing season we use a reel barrow which allows us to carry posts and pay out or take in wire with a wheel barrow like device which works really well. But not on snow. This was the motivation for turning our sleigh into a “snow fencer” or a “sleigh barrow”.

Horseshoeing Part 2A

Horseshoeing Part 2A

As there are well-formed and badly formed bodies, so there are well-formed and badly formed limbs and hoofs. The form of the hoof depends upon the position of the limb. A straight limb of normal direction possesses, as a rule, a regular hoof, while an oblique or crooked limb is accompanied by an irregular or oblique hoof. Hence, it is necessary, before discussing the various forms of the hoof, to consider briefly the various positions that may be assumed by the limbs.

Delivery Wagon Plans

Delivery Wagon Plans

from issue:

While the low down delivery wagon is an improvement, the objectionable features are increased. But with all those objections the low down wagons increase every year. Their convenience outweighs all other objections. They are handy for country delivery and are fitted up inside to suit either grocers, bakers, butchers or milk delivery, or a combination of the four.

Sack Sewing with Wayne Ryan

Sack Sewing with Wayne Ryan

by:
from issue:

Watching Wayne’s sure hands it was easy for me to forget that this is a 91 year old man. There was strength, economy, elegance and thrift in his every stroke.

How To Prune

From Dusty Shelves: Pruning Guide from 1917

Horseshoeing Part 2C

Horseshoeing Part 2C

The wear of the shoe is caused much less by the weight of the animal’s body than by the rubbing which takes place between the shoe and the earth whenever the foot is placed to the ground and lifted. The wear of the shoe which occurs when the foot is placed on the ground is termed “grounding wear,” and that which occurs while the foot is being lifted from the ground is termed “swinging-off wear.” When a horse travels normally, both kinds of wear are nearly alike, but are very distinct when the paces are abnormal, especially when there is faulty direction of the limbs.

The Craft of the Wheelwright

The Craft of the Wheelwright

by:
from issue:

In these days of standardization and the extensive use of metal wheels you might think there is little call for the centuries old craft of wheelwrighting, but the many demands on the skills of Gus Kitson in Suffolk, England, show this to be very far from the truth. Despite many years experience of renovating all types of wagons and wheels even Gus can still be surprised by the types of items for which new or restored wooden wheels are required.

The Anatomy of Thrift: Harvest Day

On the Anatomy of Thrift Part 2: Harvest Day

On the Anatomy of Thrift is an instructional series Farmrun created with Farmstead Meatsmith. Their principal intention is instruction in the matters of traditional pork processing. In a broader and more honest context, OAT is a deeply philosophical manifesto on the subject of eating animals. Harvest Day is the second in the series, which explores the ‘cheer’ that is prepared on the day of slaughter, and dives deep into the philosophy and psychology of our relationship to animals.

Work Horse Handbook

Grooming Work Horses

The serviceability of the work horse may be increased or decreased according to the care which is bestowed upon him. If he is groomed in a perfunctory fashion his efficiency as an animal motor is lessened. On the other hand, if he is well groomed he is snappier and fresher in appearance and is constantly up on the bit.

Basil Scarberrys Ground-Drive Forecart

Basil Scarberry’s Ground-Drive Forecart

by:
from issue:

I used an ’84 Chevrolet S-10 rear end to build my forecart, turn it over to get right rotation, used master cylinder off buggy and 2” Reese hitch, extend hitch out to use P.T.O. The cart is especially useful for tedding hay. However, its uses are virtually unlimited. We use it for hauling firewood on a trailer, for pulling a disc and peg tooth harrow, for hauling baled hay on an 8’ x 16’ hay wagon, and just for a jaunt about the farm and community.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT