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Between Ourselves & Our Land

Between Ourselves & Our Land

Vegetable Row Crops with the Straddle Row Cultivator

by Chandler Briggs of Walla Walla, WA

I must admit, I have been mildly hesitant to submit an article to the Small Farmer’s Journal. I’ve only been a reader for a few years now, and farming regularly with horses for slightly longer than a year. These are merely field trials and I consider myself a novice with this machine, and with driving horses. I do not claim these practices to be anything but one experience in this place. But I am, like many greenhorns, excited to be a part of this community and to participate. I hope they provide inspiration to those who were new to draft power, a position I found myself not long ago, and provoke ideas in those with many years under their belt. Every day we work, I learn how much more there is to explore and know. I look forward to the journey, for it is fun & challenging. Or as one friend I know puts it:

Understanding the art of a craft is a journey with no end.

Since being introduced to the straddle row cultivator last year in hilling our potatoes, I have been excited to experiment with different tools mounted under the versatile machine. Like the famed Allis Chalmers G or Farmall Cub my peers of the internal combustion persuasion utilize on their vegetable farms, this tool can help maximize efficiency in many ways on the small farm. My primary inspiration for getting to know my new machine has been and continues to be the thorough, innovative SFJ articles written by Eric & Anne Nordell.

On our farm, we use two McCormick Deering straddle row cultivators rebuilt by Marvin Brisk of Halfway, Oregon. Many of our new and restored tools have come from his shop, and we are extremely happy with them. So far, they have been used primarily in cultivation and hilling of potatoes. Our horses, Avi & Dandy, are a mare & a gelding 10-year-old American Belgians from Horsepower Organics in Halfway, Oregon.

Between Ourselves & Our Land

PLANTING

This spring I wanted to experiment with the straddle row cultivator (SRC) in planting out potatoes. I liked the multi-purpose possibilities of this tool, and that it allows for one person to work both horses, rather than two people working one horse. In years prior, the farm has used the team to pull a walking middle breaker with a 13 inch bottom. We then dropped in the potatoes, and covered them up by hand with rakes. We later came through with the SRC to weed paths and hill up the spuds. One of the changes I sought to avoid with using the SRC was an inconsistent depth of the furrow, which was difficult to avoid due to what we believe to be the sensitive nature of our middle breaker. I also felt that the depth was too deep in general. It creates tall peaks for paths between the rows when it is too deep. Imagine a side view of the field like one continuous “W.” This made it very difficult to cover the spuds with the disc hillers as there was no flat ground between the rows of spuds to drive on. When we attempted to, the wheels would slide down into the furrow, leaving the disc of the same side at the bottom of the furrow, throwing the spud seed and some dirt out the other side. It was a mess, and very time-consuming to fix. Thus, the rakes. One way we did manage to mitigate the lack of a riding land was to space out our rows further apart. This allows for some flat ground to drive on for covering the potatoes with discs. Spacing seems to be a trade off–the greater space between rows, the more dirt you can throw up on the potato plants, and the bigger they get; but with tighter spacing you can fit in more rows in a field.

Between Ourselves & Our Land

But the inconsistent depth still gave us issues during harvest. We use a two-horse walking potato digger, which has a large shovel in front that draws up the potatoes and drops them on the soil as you walk forward. Sometimes it would miss potatoes or even slice them by not going deep enough to dig them up fully. In our trials, we were seeking a more consistent depth of furrow that we could drive over to cover the spuds. We wonder if adding a guide wheel to both the middle breaker and digger would help, but have yet to try it.

The two trials we performed in opening up furrows with the SRC were with the disc hillers attached to throw dirt out, and a 6 inch furrower sold by Agri-Supply (800-345-0169 www.agrisupply.com). The hilling discs came with the cultivator we purchased from Marvin Brisk, along with custom clamps that he had welded. The furrower was both attached via a heavy-duty S-tine to a 2 inch outside diameter (OD) square tube clamped to each gang. The S-tines can be purchased from most tractor stores and the 2 inch OD from a metal shop. The clamps are 3/8 inch flat stock ranging from 3.5 inches to 4 inches wide, with 1/2 inch bolts and lock nuts.

The opposing discs did open a furrow, but left a large ridge at the bottom of it, which we felt was unsatisfactory for planting. We were unsure of how to set them up in a way that left a clean V-shaped furrow.

Between Ourselves & Our Land

Spotlight On: Crops & Soil

Cabbage

Cabbage

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Cabbage is the most important vegetable commercially of the cole crops, which include cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, collard, broccoli, and many others. It also ranks as one of the most important of all vegetable crops and is universally cultivated as a garden, truck and general farm crop. The market for cabbage, like that for potatoes, is continuous throughout the year, and this tends to make it one of the staple vegetables.

Planting Calendar and Other Diagrams

From Dusty Shelves: A 1943 calendar for seeding your vegetable garden.

Cane Grinding

Cane Grinding: An Age-Old Georgia Tradition

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from issue:

Most sugar cane is processed in refineries to give us molasses, brown sugar, and various kinds of white sugar. However, some South Georgia farms that raise sugar cane still process it the old way to produce the special tasting sweetener for their own food. One such farm is the Rocking R Ranch in Kibbee, Georgia. It is owned by Charles and Patricia Roberts and their sons. The process they use has not changed in the past 100 years. This is how it is done.

Marketable Cover Crops

Marketable Cover Crops

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Our cover crops have to provide the benefits of smothering weeds, improving soil structure, and replenishing organic matter. They also have to produce some income. For these purposes, we use turnips, mustard and lettuce within our plant successions. I broadcast these seeds thickly on areas where cover crops are necessary and let them do their work.

Rice as a New Staple Crop for Very Cold Climates

Rice as a New Staple Crop for Very Cold Climates

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from issue:

If you were visiting Earth from some other planet and had to describe its inhabitants upon your return, you might say that the average person eats rice, and grows it as well, usually on a small scale. You’d be accurately describing the habits of over a quarter of the world’s population. Rice has a special story with an exciting chapter now unfolding in the northeast USA among a small but growing group of farmers and growers.

Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

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After three or four years we could see that the nature of our farming practices would continue to have detrimental effects on our soils. We were looking for a new approach, a routine that would be sustainable, rather than a rescue treatment for an ongoing problem. We decided to convert our fields to permanent planting beds with grassy strips in between where all tractor, foot and irrigation pipe traffic would be concentrated.

Wild Potatoes and Calcium

Wild potatoes bring increased calcium for better tubers.Have you ever cut into a potato to find a dark spot or hollow part? Early research shows that these defects are likely the result of calcium deficiencies in the potato — and that tuber calcium is genetically linked to tuber quality.

Raised Bed Gardening

Raised Bed Gardening

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Raised beds may not be right for everyone, and our way is not the only way. I have seen raised beds made from rows of 5’ diameter kiddy pools, and heard of a fellow who collected junk refrigerators from the dump and lined them up on their backs into a rainbow of colored enameled steel raised beds. Even rows of five-gallon pails filled with plants count as raised beds in my estimation. Do it any way you care to, but do it if it’s right for you.

An Introduction Into Plant Polyculture

An excerpt from What’s Wrong With My Fruit Garden
Companion Planting for Beginners

Swallow

Rotation As A Means Of Blight Control

Every farmer knows that when a crop is grown on the same field year after year, it becomes inferior in quality and the yield steadily diminishes.

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

This is the account of how one farm put more horse power into the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of its potato crop. Ever since we began farming on our own in 1994 one of our principle aims has been the conversion of our farm operation to live horse power wherever feasible. This has meant replacing mechanized tools such as tractors and rototillers and figuring out how to reduce human labor as we expanded upon the labor capacity of our work horses.

Low Tillage Radish Onions

Low Tillage Radish Onions

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The radishes came up quick, filling the garden canopy completely that fall, and the following spring we found the plot was clean of weeds and rows of open holes were left where the radish roots had been growing. Well, we had a few extra onion plants that spring and decided to plant them in these holes, since we already had very clear lines laid out for us and a clean seedbed. What we got were the best looking onions that have ever come out of our gardens.

Farm Manure

Farm Manure

Naturally there is great variation in manure according to the animals it is made by, the feeding and bedding material, and the manner in which it is kept. Different analyses naturally shows different results and the tables here given serve only as a guide or index to the various kinds. The manure heap, by the way, is no place for old tin cans, bottles, glass, and other similar waste material.

Peach

Peach

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The Peach is a showy tree when in bloom. There are double-flowered varieties, which are as handsome as the dwarf flowering almond, and they are more showy because of the greater size of the tree. The flowers of the Peach are naturally variable in both size and color. Peach-growers are aware that there are small-flowered and large-flowered varieties. The character of the flower is as characteristic of the variety as size or color of fruit is.

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

We were inspired to try no-tilling vegetables into cover crops after attending the Groffs’ field day in 1996. No-tilling warm season vegetables has proved problematic at our site due to the mulch of cover crop residues keeping the soil too cool and attracting slugs. We thought that no-tilling garlic into this cover crop of oats and Canadian field peas might be the ticket as garlic seems to appreciate being mulched.

Cultivating Questions: Alternative Tillage & Inter-Seeding Techniques

Our intention is not to advocate the oddball living mulches we use with this single row inter-seeding system, but just to show how it is possible to utilize the between-row areas to improve insect habitat, reduce erosion, conserve moisture, fix some nitrogen, and grow a good bit of extra organic matter. If nothing else, experimenting with these alternative practices continues to keep farming exciting as we begin our twentieth season of bio-extensive market gardening.

Mullein Indigenous Friend to All

Mullein: Indigenous Friend to All

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Mullein is a hardy native, soft and sturdy requiring no extra effort to thrive on your part. Whether you care to make your own medicines or not, consider mullein’s value to bees, bumblebees, butterflies, moths, dragonflies, who are needing nectar and nourishment that is toxin free and safe to consume. In this case, all you have to do is… nothing. What could be simpler?

On-Farm Meat Processing

The demand for fresh, local meat products – with no taint of industrial process – is absolutely staggering.

Journal Guide