Small Farmer's Journal

or Subscribe
Cultivating Questions Cultivator Setups and Deer Fencing

Cultivating Questions Concerning the Bio-Extensive Market Garden

Cultivator Set-ups and Deer Fencing

by Anne & Eric Nordell
Illustrations by Ed Ochsner

In the past two issues of the Small Farmer’s Journal we have tried to describe some of the financial and philosophical aspects of our farm system. In this column we get into the nuts and bolts of the cultivator set-up and deer fence we use in the bio-extensive market garden. We also include, at the end, a letter suggesting a mechanical solution to inter-seeding row crops more efficiently.

Dear Eric & Anne,

Haven’t even finished reading the Summer issue of SFJ, matter of fact, I didn’t even make it through “A Farming of Fertile Textures” completely before I had to stop and write you to order your “Controlled Rotational Cover Cropping” video. I will admit that I was a little skeptical when Lynn mentioned the video in the Spring issue. How good could a video of a slide presentation be? After reading Lynn’s first few paragraphs in this article, I had my answer.

I don’t mean I was skeptical of your cropping approaches, far from it. The issues of the SFJ that contain your past articles are the most dog-eared of all past issues. I only hope that I’ll be able to put what you’re teaching into full use. Right now I have to be satisfied with approximately an acre of market garden for which I’ve devised a 5 year, 5 plot rotation, worked with an old Farmall Cub tractor with cultivators, plows, hillers, etc. Also have two teams of oxen, actually working steers, one team is 3-1/2 year old Jerseys and the other only 4 month old Ayreshires. Have not as yet been able to work the steers into the market garden other than harrowing, but hopefully that will develop as time goes on.

One question that I have related to your cropping system is deer control which maybe you would want to use in your new Questions and Answers column in the SFJ. I’ve lost every potato plant in the four 165 foot rows that I planted this year – very frustrating. While obviously not a large potato crop to begin with, my intention this year and probably future years is to sell at local farmers’ markets after saving enough for our own use. Also have onions, beets, pumpkins, and winter squash growing in the same plot, none of which the deer have touched. What do you do? Plant “give away” crops that the deer like better? Row covers? “Harvest” more deer during hunting season? Never have heard of deer eating potato plants before now, but at least I won’t have a problem with potato bugs!

Looking forward to the video, your new column and continued feature articles in SFJ. Thank you. Sincerely, Doug Bunnell Endicott, NY

We know all too well the frustration of putting your heart and soul into a crop only to have the wildlife consume it before you can get it harvested let alone to market. Our farm sits next to several thousand acres of state game lands and is the only produce operation in the area. As you can imagine, deer pressure can be intense. Neighbors have counted herds of 20 or more in our pastures.

What complicates the situation, at least in Pennsylvania, is that hunting is big business and the Game Commission puts a lot of resources into maintaining a healthy deer population. Under law, farmers are compensated for crop damage by being allowed to keep the meat from one deer in their freezer at all times. That may be adequate compensation if you like to shoot and eat venison and the damage is restricted to a couple of acres of corn or alfalfa at the back of the farm, but it can’t begin to recompense farmers for damage to high-value or long-term crops like market garden produce or fruit trees. In these cases, if you can prove the extent of deer damage, the Game Commission offers cost-share for a six-wire, vertical, hi-tensile deer fence.

When the Game Warden came to our farm in the fall of 1987 to assess the damage – the deer had just mowed off the tops of a half acre of carrots – we faced a dilemma: Do we get tied into a government program to erect a permanent fence which we were not convinced was 100% effective?; do we continue with rotating cheap deterrents like deodorant soap, human hair or circus tiger dung which only worked temporarily, if at all?; or do we invest in a sloped 7-wire deer fence like the one we had seen at Sam and Elizabeth Smith’s Caretaker Farm in Williamstown, Ma, which had proven to be effective?


Always hesitant to put in permanent fixtures that might limit flexibility or maneuverability on the farm, we decided to wait and see how the Game Commission fence being erected around an orchard at the other end of the valley held off the deer. In the meantime, we invested in a New Zealand-type, low-impedance energizer (Gallagher Bev III for AC current) which we knew we would eventually need to power either type of hi-tensile deer fence. We used this charger for the horse pasture fence and the temporary deer fence we put up around part of the market garden.


We built this temporary enclosure from readily available pasture fence materials: 4′ step-in metal posts placed every 15 yards with three wires attached using twist-on plastic insulators. We baited the three-foot-high fence with peanut butter and aluminum foil sandwiches paper clipped to the wires. The idea was that when the deer tried to eat the peanut butter they would get a shock on the nose, the only uninsulated part of their body. While we never saw any red-nosed reindeer on the farm the temporary fence proved very effective for four years. The most dramatic evidence showed up the first winter: outside of the fence deer mowed the cover crops shorter than our lawn while inside the fence the same seeding of rye grew six to eight inches tall. This observation confirmed in our minds that deer control is more a question of psychology than physical barriers. We expanded the temporary fence to enclose the whole market garden.


This psychological deterrent, however, was no match for deer hormones. During “the rut” in the fall the bucks would smash through the fence. They did not do any damage to the crops in their state of blind passion, but fixing fence turned into a time-consuming chore.

In the fall of 1991 we erected a second temporary fence outside of the first one using step-in posts and a single strand of polywire (a white plastic string woven with fine filaments of charge-carrying wire). We had found both the deer and the horses respect this polywire much better than regular fence wire since it is so much easier for them to see, both day and night. We hoped the heightened visibility of the polywire would deter the hormonally charged deer from crashing through the temporary fence. Instead, we unwittingly trained them to jump it! So much for our understanding of deer psychology. From that point on the temporary deer fence was completely ineffective year round.

Meanwhile, we had learned that the deer had quickly learned to negotiate the 6-wire vertical game commission fence at the orchard nine miles away. By taking a running start, they could jump through the closely spaced wires without getting much of a shock – even if every other wire was grounded. Neighbors observed bucks tucking back their large racks to dive through the wires.

The 7-wire sloped deer fence seemed like the only option so we contacted the regional representative for Springtight/Gallagher based in Tunbridge, VT. We decided to enclose 10 acres in the fall of ’92 to give us room to expand the 6-acre market garden in the future. As it turned out, the cost was not much greater than enclosing the existing cropland as most of the expense is tied up in the gate construction and corners.

We paid $2,000 for the whole thing, both materials and labor, working alongside the contractor. That seemed like a lot of money compared to the dollar value of our horsedrawn equipment but a small investment compared to the market garden produce worth $5,000 to $10,000/acre it protected, not to mention the peace of mind it provided.

We were also surprised to find out that the sloped deer fence actually required less time and materials for construction than a vertical fence. For example, the swing corners of the sloped fence require only one H-brace bisecting the angle of the corner rather than the two H-braces commonly found at the corners of a vertical fence. Note that it is the stays attached to the outer post of the H-brace shown in the illustration which determine the spacing of the sloped wires.

The line posts used with the sloped fence are just 2×2’s which can be driven in by hand. Lightweight battens take the place of half the line posts ordinarily needed for a vertical fence. The battens are suspended in the air by the tension in the fence and their only purpose is to maintain the proper distance between the wires. The sloped rails are attached to the line posts with a single bolt at the top which makes it possible to lift the low end of the rail off the ground for mowing underneath the fence. As you can see in the illustration, we like to prop up the rails with short pieces of wood ahead of time rather than lifting the rails by hand as we mow our way around the inside of the deer fence with the team.

There are two drawbacks to these sloped deer fence kits:

1. The gate opening assembly requires more labor and materials for construction than a vertical fence. Really, it is the weak link in the fence as the posts-and-rails in the gate construction must resist all the tension in the fence as the spring-loaded wires start and stop with the gate. In fact, the butt posts at the bottom of the rails heaved over the first winter requiring extra reinforcement.

2. The wooden parts of the sloped deer fence are treated with creosote. Not only is the creosote a mess to work with but under NOFA-NY Certification guidelines we are not allowed to grow crops within 10 yards of the fence. That is not such a bad idea anyway as a road around the inside of the fence is handy for mowing and for access to the crops.

Standing only 4-1/2′ tall and made primarily of lightweight lumber, the sloped deer fence is not much of a physical barrier. Again the deterrent it provides is primarily psychological. Deer can jump high and deer can jump far but deer will rarely jump both high and far at the same time. Besides, they are likely to investigate a new obstacle with their feet on the ground and try to crawl through it. Apparently they find the wires overhead unnerving as they approach the sloped fence. And it is very difficult for them to crawl through the electrified wires in this configuration because when they step over one wire they run into the next. Since the electric shock is a big part of the deterrent, it is important to energize the fence as soon as it is erected and to make sure that it is always properly grounded and protected from lightning.

We have seen no evidence of deer or deer damage inside the sloped fence over the past four years. However, we are a little hesitant to make claims in print as it seems every time our articles appear in the SFJ something goes wrong the next year!

Dear Eric & Anne, I’d like to hear more on the actual cultivating with horses. I’m in transition now from the hoe to horses and have a slew of questions. I think I’ll just list them.

– What have you found to be the optimum row spacing? This year I planted all horse cultivated crops at 36 inches. I found this to be too little for some crops and too much for others. What’s your experience?

– I’m constantly changing sweeps, their angles in the soil, their depths, their configuration on the cultivator, etc., etc. What has been your experience with different sweeps and their uses? I find that what works under one condition does not work under another and I dream of the day when I’ll have two or three cultivators set up to go for different conditions.

– Along with the above question, what have you found to be the closest you can set the two inside sweeps?

– What do you use to hill your potatoes? I used two furrow-type hillers this year, but did not like the results.

– There are infinite adjustments on cultivators; wheel width, tongue angle, placement of the single trees, etc. Do you have any helpful suggestions on any of these adjustments which might help me in getting my cultivator just right? Maybe these do not constitute a slew of questions, but that’s all that comes to mind presently. Any other comments that you might have on cultivators and cultivation would be appreciated. I’m starting from scratch and have never seen anyone work horses in a farm setting.

or Subscribe to read the rest of this article. is a live, ever-changing subscription website. To gain access to all the content on this site, subscribe for just $5 per month. If you are not completely satisfied, cancel at any time. Here at your own convenience you can access past articles from Small Farmer's Journal's first forty years and all of the brand new content of new issues. You will also find posts of complete equipment manuals, a wide assortment of valuable ads, a vibrant events calendar, and up to the minute small farm news bulletins. The site features weather forecasts for your own area, moon phase calendaring for farm decisions, recipes, and loads of miscellaneous information.

Spotlight On: Crops & Soil



from issue:

The Peach is a showy tree when in bloom. There are double-flowered varieties, which are as handsome as the dwarf flowering almond, and they are more showy because of the greater size of the tree. The flowers of the Peach are naturally variable in both size and color. Peach-growers are aware that there are small-flowered and large-flowered varieties. The character of the flower is as characteristic of the variety as size or color of fruit is.

An Introduction To Farm Woodlands

The farm woodland is that portion of the farm which either never was cleared for tillage or pasture, or was later given back to woods growth. Thus it occupies land that never was considered suitable, or later proved unsuitable, for farm enterprises.

Open-Pollinated Corn at Spruce Run Farm

Open-Pollinated Corn at Spruce Run Farm

from issue:

The old way of selecting seed from open-pollinated corn involved selecting the best ears from the poorest ground. I have tried to select perfect ears based on the open-pollinated seed corn standards of the past. I learned these standards from old agricultural texts. The chosen ears of Reid’s average from 9 to 10.5 inches long and have smooth, well-formed grains in straight rows. I try to select ears with grains that extend to the end of the cob.

Starting Seeds

From Dusty Shelves: A WWII era article from Farming For Security

Low Tillage Radish Onions

Low Tillage Radish Onions

from issue:

The radishes came up quick, filling the garden canopy completely that fall, and the following spring we found the plot was clean of weeds and rows of open holes were left where the radish roots had been growing. Well, we had a few extra onion plants that spring and decided to plant them in these holes, since we already had very clear lines laid out for us and a clean seedbed. What we got were the best looking onions that have ever come out of our gardens.

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

This is the account of how one farm put more horse power into the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of its potato crop. Ever since we began farming on our own in 1994 one of our principle aims has been the conversion of our farm operation to live horse power wherever feasible. This has meant replacing mechanized tools such as tractors and rototillers and figuring out how to reduce human labor as we expanded upon the labor capacity of our work horses.

Farm Manure

Farm Manure

Naturally there is great variation in manure according to the animals it is made by, the feeding and bedding material, and the manner in which it is kept. Different analyses naturally shows different results and the tables here given serve only as a guide or index to the various kinds. The manure heap, by the way, is no place for old tin cans, bottles, glass, and other similar waste material.

Raised Bed Gardening

Raised Bed Gardening

from issue:

Raised beds may not be right for everyone, and our way is not the only way. I have seen raised beds made from rows of 5’ diameter kiddy pools, and heard of a fellow who collected junk refrigerators from the dump and lined them up on their backs into a rainbow of colored enameled steel raised beds. Even rows of five-gallon pails filled with plants count as raised beds in my estimation. Do it any way you care to, but do it if it’s right for you.

Henpecked Compost and U-Mix Potting Soil

We have hesitated to go public with our potting mix, not because the formula is top secret, but because our greenhouse experience is limited in years and scale. Nevertheless, we would like to offer what we have learned in hopes of showing that something as seemingly insignificant as putting together a potting mix can be integrated into a systems approach to farming.

Seed Quality from Two Perspectives

Seed Quality from Two Perspectives

from issue:

Saving seed is fairly simple to do, but the results from planting those seeds can be very mixed; without a basis of understanding of seed quality, people can be disappointed and confused as to why they got the results they did. Both the home gardener and the seed company must understand seed quality to be successful in their respective endeavors.

Wild Potatoes and Calcium

Wild potatoes bring increased calcium for better tubers.Have you ever cut into a potato to find a dark spot or hollow part? Early research shows that these defects are likely the result of calcium deficiencies in the potato — and that tuber calcium is genetically linked to tuber quality.

Cultivating Questions: Alternative Tillage & Inter-Seeding Techniques

Our intention is not to advocate the oddball living mulches we use with this single row inter-seeding system, but just to show how it is possible to utilize the between-row areas to improve insect habitat, reduce erosion, conserve moisture, fix some nitrogen, and grow a good bit of extra organic matter. If nothing else, experimenting with these alternative practices continues to keep farming exciting as we begin our twentieth season of bio-extensive market gardening.

Bamboo A Multipurpose Agroforestry Crop

Bamboo: A Multipurpose Agroforestry Crop

from issue:

The bamboos are gaining increased attention as an alternative crop with multiple uses and benefits: 1) domestic use around the farm (e.g., vegetable stakes, trellis poles, shade laths); 2) commercial production for use in construction, food, and the arts (e.g., concrete reinforcement, fishing poles, furniture, crafts, edible bamboo shoots, musical instruments); and 3) ornamental, landscape, and conservation uses (e.g., specimen plants, screens, hedges, riparian buffer zone).

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

Cultivating Questions: Winterkilled Cover Crops For A Mild Climate Part 2

Finding just the right cover crop-tillage combination for crops planted the last half of June has always been a real challenge in our location. While surface-tilling mature rye and vetch in May works well for fall crops established in July and August, this cover crop-tillage combo does not allow enough time for decomposition and moisture accumulation for end-of-June plantings.

Cultivating Questions Ridge-Till Revisited

Cultivating Questions: Ridge-Till Revisited

Delay ridge building until early fall so that the cover crop on the ridge does not grow more than 12” tall before winter. The residues from a short cover crop will be much less challenging to cultivate than a tall stand of oats, especially if tangly field peas are mixed in. Waiting for the winterkilled cover crop residues to breakdown as long as possible before ridge-tilling in the spring will also make cultivation much easier until you gain familiarity with the system.

Walki Biodegradable Mulching Paper

New Biodegradable Mulching Paper

Views of any and all modern farming stir questions for me. The most common wonder for me has been ‘how come we haven’t come up with a something to replace plastic?’ It’s used for cold frames, hotbeds, greenhouses, silage and haylage bagging and it is used for mulch. That’s why when I read of this new Swedish innovation in specialized paper mulching I got the itch to scratch and learn more. What follows is what we know. We’d like to know more. LRM

Beating the Beetles – War & Peace in a Houston Garden

Blooming that is, unless the cucumber beetles arrive first.
And arrive they have … “At first I thought they looked like big, yellow lady bugs.” Paul said, “Then I looked…