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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Cultivating Questions Cultivator Setups and Deer Fencing

Cultivating Questions Concerning the Bio-Extensive Market Garden

Cultivator Set-ups and Deer Fencing

by Anne & Eric Nordell
Illustrations by Ed Ochsner

In the past two issues of the Small Farmer’s Journal we have tried to describe some of the financial and philosophical aspects of our farm system. In this column we get into the nuts and bolts of the cultivator set-up and deer fence we use in the bio-extensive market garden. We also include, at the end, a letter suggesting a mechanical solution to inter-seeding row crops more efficiently.

Dear Eric & Anne,

Haven’t even finished reading the Summer issue of SFJ, matter of fact, I didn’t even make it through “A Farming of Fertile Textures” completely before I had to stop and write you to order your “Controlled Rotational Cover Cropping” video. I will admit that I was a little skeptical when Lynn mentioned the video in the Spring issue. How good could a video of a slide presentation be? After reading Lynn’s first few paragraphs in this article, I had my answer.

I don’t mean I was skeptical of your cropping approaches, far from it. The issues of the SFJ that contain your past articles are the most dog-eared of all past issues. I only hope that I’ll be able to put what you’re teaching into full use. Right now I have to be satisfied with approximately an acre of market garden for which I’ve devised a 5 year, 5 plot rotation, worked with an old Farmall Cub tractor with cultivators, plows, hillers, etc. Also have two teams of oxen, actually working steers, one team is 3-1/2 year old Jerseys and the other only 4 month old Ayreshires. Have not as yet been able to work the steers into the market garden other than harrowing, but hopefully that will develop as time goes on.

One question that I have related to your cropping system is deer control which maybe you would want to use in your new Questions and Answers column in the SFJ. I’ve lost every potato plant in the four 165 foot rows that I planted this year – very frustrating. While obviously not a large potato crop to begin with, my intention this year and probably future years is to sell at local farmers’ markets after saving enough for our own use. Also have onions, beets, pumpkins, and winter squash growing in the same plot, none of which the deer have touched. What do you do? Plant “give away” crops that the deer like better? Row covers? “Harvest” more deer during hunting season? Never have heard of deer eating potato plants before now, but at least I won’t have a problem with potato bugs!

Looking forward to the video, your new column and continued feature articles in SFJ. Thank you. Sincerely, Doug Bunnell Endicott, NY

We know all too well the frustration of putting your heart and soul into a crop only to have the wildlife consume it before you can get it harvested let alone to market. Our farm sits next to several thousand acres of state game lands and is the only produce operation in the area. As you can imagine, deer pressure can be intense. Neighbors have counted herds of 20 or more in our pastures.

What complicates the situation, at least in Pennsylvania, is that hunting is big business and the Game Commission puts a lot of resources into maintaining a healthy deer population. Under law, farmers are compensated for crop damage by being allowed to keep the meat from one deer in their freezer at all times. That may be adequate compensation if you like to shoot and eat venison and the damage is restricted to a couple of acres of corn or alfalfa at the back of the farm, but it can’t begin to recompense farmers for damage to high-value or long-term crops like market garden produce or fruit trees. In these cases, if you can prove the extent of deer damage, the Game Commission offers cost-share for a six-wire, vertical, hi-tensile deer fence.

When the Game Warden came to our farm in the fall of 1987 to assess the damage – the deer had just mowed off the tops of a half acre of carrots – we faced a dilemma: Do we get tied into a government program to erect a permanent fence which we were not convinced was 100% effective?; do we continue with rotating cheap deterrents like deodorant soap, human hair or circus tiger dung which only worked temporarily, if at all?; or do we invest in a sloped 7-wire deer fence like the one we had seen at Sam and Elizabeth Smith’s Caretaker Farm in Williamstown, Ma, which had proven to be effective?

21c-nordell

Always hesitant to put in permanent fixtures that might limit flexibility or maneuverability on the farm, we decided to wait and see how the Game Commission fence being erected around an orchard at the other end of the valley held off the deer. In the meantime, we invested in a New Zealand-type, low-impedance energizer (Gallagher Bev III for AC current) which we knew we would eventually need to power either type of hi-tensile deer fence. We used this charger for the horse pasture fence and the temporary deer fence we put up around part of the market garden.

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We built this temporary enclosure from readily available pasture fence materials: 4′ step-in metal posts placed every 15 yards with three wires attached using twist-on plastic insulators. We baited the three-foot-high fence with peanut butter and aluminum foil sandwiches paper clipped to the wires. The idea was that when the deer tried to eat the peanut butter they would get a shock on the nose, the only uninsulated part of their body. While we never saw any red-nosed reindeer on the farm the temporary fence proved very effective for four years. The most dramatic evidence showed up the first winter: outside of the fence deer mowed the cover crops shorter than our lawn while inside the fence the same seeding of rye grew six to eight inches tall. This observation confirmed in our minds that deer control is more a question of psychology than physical barriers. We expanded the temporary fence to enclose the whole market garden.

22a-nordell

This psychological deterrent, however, was no match for deer hormones. During “the rut” in the fall the bucks would smash through the fence. They did not do any damage to the crops in their state of blind passion, but fixing fence turned into a time-consuming chore.

In the fall of 1991 we erected a second temporary fence outside of the first one using step-in posts and a single strand of polywire (a white plastic string woven with fine filaments of charge-carrying wire). We had found both the deer and the horses respect this polywire much better than regular fence wire since it is so much easier for them to see, both day and night. We hoped the heightened visibility of the polywire would deter the hormonally charged deer from crashing through the temporary fence. Instead, we unwittingly trained them to jump it! So much for our understanding of deer psychology. From that point on the temporary deer fence was completely ineffective year round.

Meanwhile, we had learned that the deer had quickly learned to negotiate the 6-wire vertical game commission fence at the orchard nine miles away. By taking a running start, they could jump through the closely spaced wires without getting much of a shock – even if every other wire was grounded. Neighbors observed bucks tucking back their large racks to dive through the wires.

The 7-wire sloped deer fence seemed like the only option so we contacted the regional representative for Springtight/Gallagher based in Tunbridge, VT. We decided to enclose 10 acres in the fall of ’92 to give us room to expand the 6-acre market garden in the future. As it turned out, the cost was not much greater than enclosing the existing cropland as most of the expense is tied up in the gate construction and corners.

We paid $2,000 for the whole thing, both materials and labor, working alongside the contractor. That seemed like a lot of money compared to the dollar value of our horsedrawn equipment but a small investment compared to the market garden produce worth $5,000 to $10,000/acre it protected, not to mention the peace of mind it provided.

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Spotlight On: Crops & Soil

Lost Apples

Lost Apples

The mindboggling agricultural plant and animal diversity, at the beginning of the twentieth century, should have been a treasure trove which mankind worked tirelessy to maintain. Such has not been the case. Alas, much has been lost, perhaps forever. Here are images and information on a handful of apple varieties from a valuable hundred year old text in our library.

Asparagus in Holland

Asparagus in Holland

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from issue:

The asparagus culture in Holland is for the majority white asparagus, grown in ridges. This piece of land used to be the headland of the field. The soil was therefore compact, and a big tractor came with a spader, loosening the soil. After that I used the horse for the lighter harrowing and scuffle work to prevent soil compaction. This land lies high for Dutch standards and has a low ground water level, that is why asparagus can grow there, which can root 3 foot deep over the years.

Mullein Indigenous Friend to All

Mullein: Indigenous Friend to All

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Mullein is a hardy native, soft and sturdy requiring no extra effort to thrive on your part. Whether you care to make your own medicines or not, consider mullein’s value to bees, bumblebees, butterflies, moths, dragonflies, who are needing nectar and nourishment that is toxin free and safe to consume. In this case, all you have to do is… nothing. What could be simpler?

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Syrup From Oregon’s Big Leaf Maple

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There is a great potential in establishment of a seasonal “sugarbush” industry for small farmers of the northwestern states, particularly western Oregon and Washington. Five syrup producing species of maples are found mainly east of the Rocky Mountains. The Box Elder and the Big-leaf Maple are the only syrup producing maples of the Pacific Northwest. Properly made syrup from these two western maples is indistinguishable from the syrup of maples of the midwestern and northeastern states.

Starting Seeds

From Dusty Shelves: A WWII era article from Farming For Security

Planting Calendar and Other Diagrams

From Dusty Shelves: A 1943 calendar for seeding your vegetable garden.

Cultivating Questions Ridge-Till Revisited

Cultivating Questions: Ridge-Till Revisited

Delay ridge building until early fall so that the cover crop on the ridge does not grow more than 12” tall before winter. The residues from a short cover crop will be much less challenging to cultivate than a tall stand of oats, especially if tangly field peas are mixed in. Waiting for the winterkilled cover crop residues to breakdown as long as possible before ridge-tilling in the spring will also make cultivation much easier until you gain familiarity with the system.

Winter Production of Fresh Vegetables

Winter Production of Fresh Vegetables

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Any claim about winter production of fresh vegetables, with minimal or no heating or heat storage systems, seems highly improbable. The weather is too cold and the days are too short. Low winter temperatures, however, are not an insurmountable barrier. Nor is winter day-length the barrier it may appear to be. In fact most of the continental US has far more winter sunshine than parts of the world where, due to milder temperatures, fresh winter vegetable production has a long tradition.

Onion Culture

Onion Culture

The essential requirements of a soil upon which to grow onions profitably are a high state of fertility, good mechanical condition, properties – that is, if it contains sufficient sand and humus to be easily worked, is retentive of moisture and fertilizers, and is capable of drainage – all other requirements can be met.

An Introduction Into Plant Polyculture

An excerpt from What’s Wrong With My Fruit Garden
Companion Planting for Beginners

Carrots and Beets The Roots of Our Garden

Carrots & Beets – The Roots of Our Garden

by:
from issue:

Carrots and beets are some of the vegetables that are easy to kill with kindness. They’re little gluttons for space and nutrients, and must be handled with an iron fist to make them grow straight and strong. Give the buggers no slack at all! Your motto should be – “If in doubt, yank it out!” I pinch out a finger full (maybe 3/4” wide) and skip a finger width. Pinch and skip, pinch and skip, working with existing gaps and rooting out particularly thick clumps.

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes Part Two

These types of team implements for digging potatoes were the first big innovation in horse powered potato harvesting in the mid-19th century. Prior to the horse drawn digger the limitation on how many potatoes a farmer could plant was how many the farm crew could dig by hand. The basic design of these early diggers works so well that new models of this type of digger are once again being manufactured by contemporary horse drawn equipment suppliers.

Henpecked Compost and U-Mix Potting Soil

We have hesitated to go public with our potting mix, not because the formula is top secret, but because our greenhouse experience is limited in years and scale. Nevertheless, we would like to offer what we have learned in hopes of showing that something as seemingly insignificant as putting together a potting mix can be integrated into a systems approach to farming.

Bamboo A Multipurpose Agroforestry Crop

Bamboo: A Multipurpose Agroforestry Crop

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The bamboos are gaining increased attention as an alternative crop with multiple uses and benefits: 1) domestic use around the farm (e.g., vegetable stakes, trellis poles, shade laths); 2) commercial production for use in construction, food, and the arts (e.g., concrete reinforcement, fishing poles, furniture, crafts, edible bamboo shoots, musical instruments); and 3) ornamental, landscape, and conservation uses (e.g., specimen plants, screens, hedges, riparian buffer zone).

Farm Manure

Farm Manure

Naturally there is great variation in manure according to the animals it is made by, the feeding and bedding material, and the manner in which it is kept. Different analyses naturally shows different results and the tables here given serve only as a guide or index to the various kinds. The manure heap, by the way, is no place for old tin cans, bottles, glass, and other similar waste material.

Apple Cider Autumns Nectar

Apple Cider, Autumn’s Nectar

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While autumn’s beauty is food for our souls, autumn’s harvest provides food for our tables. Along with the many hours and days of canning and freezing our garden produce, harvest time also means apple cider making for our family. We have been making apple cider, or sweet cider as it is commonly called, for six years. Beginning slowly, the demand for our juice has resulted in a production of over six hundred gallons this year.

Low Tillage Radish Onions

Low Tillage Radish Onions

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The radishes came up quick, filling the garden canopy completely that fall, and the following spring we found the plot was clean of weeds and rows of open holes were left where the radish roots had been growing. Well, we had a few extra onion plants that spring and decided to plant them in these holes, since we already had very clear lines laid out for us and a clean seedbed. What we got were the best looking onions that have ever come out of our gardens.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT