Small Farmer's Journal

or Subscribe
The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

Cultivating Questions Concerning the Bio-Extensive Market Garden

The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

by Anne and Eric Nordell of Trout Run, PA
illustrations by Ed Ochsner of Hohenwald, TN

Hi Anne and Eric,

This is Sam and Rich Wickham writing to you. We have been living and working on farms in the Finger Lakes for the past few seasons and, by way of our Amish neighbors and all the talented draft powered farmers in the area, we have been inspired to pursue farming with horses.

We have been passively gleaning knowledge from you through the SFJ, the world wide web, and your wonderful DVD and booklet which we got for Christmas this year. Your in depth, thoughtful coverage has been, far and away, the most valuable resource to us in our fledgling farming career. At first, we were just excited to find another couple who wanted to keep their farm a two person operation and how they went about that. However, it quickly became apparent that that knowledge was the very least we would stand to get out of poring over your old SFJ articles.

Anyway, we think we have exhausted our google search capacity in trying to find out more about your farm so we figured we had better sit down and write a letter to you both. We are quite curious about your wood stove greenhouse seedling set up. It has been difficult for us to determine the possible dimensions and arrangement of the system. Any insight into this would be much appreciated. Also, are you only heating up the stove at night or is it continuous throughout the day?

We are not prone to pestering but we are so intrigued by this idea that we just can’t help ourselves in this instance. We have been wanting to drop a line your way anyway to let you know that your work has elevated our understanding of farming (and appreciation of the craft) by leaps and bounds. Thank you for your generosity!

Take Care,
Sam and Rich
Caseville, MI

Before launching into the construction details of the bottom heated bench, we should explain why we chose this unusual method of heating the greenhouse in the first place. Looking for a low tech, low cost heat system which did not require electricity, we were intrigued with the nineteenth century greenhouse design in Peter Henderson’s Gardening for Profit. [see below – ed.] The flue from the wood stove of this renowned market gardener’s greenhouse ran underneath the length of the central bench and back again before joining the chimney built directly on top of the firebox. The heat from the stove created enough draft in the stack to pull smoke and heat through the long horizontal flue, warming the 20′ by 60′ greenhouse and providing bottom heat to most of the plants.

As much as this innovative heating system appealed to our minimalist outlook, we were concerned that this setup would be overkill for the 10′ by 16′ structure we intended to build in time for the 1988 greenhouse season. It seemed to us that a clean burning fire would make the small greenhouse too hot for the health of the plants and that moderating the greenhouse temperature with a smoldering fire would quickly lead to creosote buildup in the horizontal flue, a sure recipe for a chimney fire. We decided a safer, less polluting alternative would require thermal mass directly under the plants to capture the intense heat from a clean burning fire and release the warmth slowly for twelve or more hours.

The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

It took several incarnations to come up with a satisfactory design for the bottom heated greenhouse bench. In the final version we used two 55 gallon drums welded end-to-end for the firebox and a salvaged piece of 12” stainless steel chimney for the horizontal flue. (Metal culvert pipe or gasline casing might work just as well.) We learned the hard way that a large firebox and flue are necessary to dissipate the intense heat into the surrounding air chamber and to minimize heat stress on these components.

To shield the wooden greenhouse structure from the heat, we built the end walls of the bench with 4′ by 4′ pieces of sheet metal, cutting a large enough hole in one end for the door of the barrel stove and a smaller hole at the other end for the horizontal flue to exit and join the chimney outside of the greenhouse. A farmer that copied our design but neglected this safety feature had to call the fire department when the heat from the stove caught the greenhouse on fire.

SmallFarmersJournal.com is a live, ever-changing subscription website. To gain access to all the content on this site, subscribe for just $5 per month. If you are not completely satisfied, cancel at any time. Here at your own convenience you can access past articles from Small Farmer's Journal's first forty years and all of the brand new content of new issues. You will also find posts of complete equipment manuals, a wide assortment of valuable ads, a vibrant events calendar, and up to the minute small farm news bulletins. The site features weather forecasts for your own area, moon phase calendaring for farm decisions, recipes, and loads of miscellaneous information.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

New Horse-drawn Side Delivery Rakes from Europe

New Horse-drawn Side Delivery Rakes from Europe

In Northern Italy the two agricultural machinery manufacturers MAINARDI A. s.r.l. and REPOSSI Macchine Agricole s.r.l. produce a vast range of haying equipment with pto and hydraulic drive, also hay rakes with mechanical drive by the rear wheels. The majority of the sold machines of this type are currently used with small tractors and motor cultivators. The technology of these rakes is based on implements which were developed in the 1940s, when animal traction still played an important role in Italy’s agriculture.

The Milk and Human Kindness Stanchion Floor

The Milk and Human Kindness: Plans for an Old Style Wooden Stanchion Floor

by:
from issue:

The basic needs that we are addressing here are as follows: To create a sunny, airy (not drafty), dry, convenient, accessible place to bring in our cow or cows, with or without calves, to be comfortably and easily secured for milking and other purposes such as vet checks, AI breeding, etc. where both you and your cow feel secure and content. A place that is functional, clean, warm and inviting in every way.

Shoeing Stocks

An article from the out-of-print Winter 1982 Issue of SFJ.

Basil Scarberrys Ground-Drive Forecart

Basil Scarberry’s Ground-Drive Forecart

by:
from issue:

I used an ’84 Chevrolet S-10 rear end to build my forecart, turn it over to get right rotation, used master cylinder off buggy and 2” Reese hitch, extend hitch out to use P.T.O. The cart is especially useful for tedding hay. However, its uses are virtually unlimited. We use it for hauling firewood on a trailer, for pulling a disc and peg tooth harrow, for hauling baled hay on an 8’ x 16’ hay wagon, and just for a jaunt about the farm and community.

Between Ourselves & Our Land

Between Ourselves & Our Land

by:
from issue:

Since being introduced to the straddle row cultivator last year in hilling our potatoes, I have been excited to experiment with different tools mounted under the versatile machine. Like the famed Allis Chalmers G or Farmall Cub my peers of the internal combustion persuasion utilize on their vegetable farms, this tool can help maximize efficiency in many ways on the small farm.

The Horsedrawn Mower Book

Removing the Wheels from a McCormick Deering No. 9 Mower

How to remove the wheels of a No. 9 McCormick Deering Mower, an excerpt from The Horsedrawn Mower Book.

LittleField Notes Mower Notes

LittleField Notes: Mower Notes

by:
from issue:

The horse drawn mowing machine is a marvel of engineering. Imagine a pair of horses turning the energy of their walking into a reciprocal cutting motion able to drop acres of forage at a time without ever burning a drop of fossil fuel. And then consider that the forage being cut will fuel the horses that will in turn cut next year’s crop. What a beautiful concept! Since I’ve been mowing some everyday I’ve had lots of time to think about the workings of these marvelous machines.

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

by:
from issue:

One of the challenges I constantly face using draft ponies is finding appropriately sized equipment. Mya is a Shetland-Welsh cross, standing at 11.2 hands. Most manure spreaders are big and heavy and require a team of horses. I needed something small and light and preferably wheeled to minimize impact to the land. My husband and I looked around our budding small farm for something light, wheeled, cheap, and available, and we quickly noticed our Vermont-style garden cart.

Walsh No Buckle Harness

from issue:

When first you become familiar with North American working harness you might come to the erroneous conclusion that, except for minor style variations, all harnesses are much the same. While quality and material issues are accounting for substantive differences in the modern harness, there were also interesting and important variations back in the early twentieth century which many of us today either have forgotten or never knew about. Perhaps the most significant example is the Walsh No Buckle Harness.

Build Your Own Butter Churn

Build Your Own Butter Churn

by:
from issue:

Fresh butter melting on hot homemade bread… Isn’t that the homesteader’s dream? A cheap two-gallon stock pot from the local chain store got me started in churn building. It was thin stainless steel and cost less than ten bucks. I carted it home wondering what I might find in my junk pile to run the thing. I found an old squirrel cage fan and pulled the little motor to test it. I figure that if it could turn a six-inch fan, it could turn a two-inch impeller.

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

by:
from issue:

Making a pair of tongs was a milestone for a lot of blacksmiths. In times gone past a Journeyman Smith meant just that, a smith that went upon a journey to learn more skills before taking a masters test. When the smith appeared at the door of a prospective employer, he/she would be required to demonstrate their skills. A yard stick for this was to make a pair of tongs.

Illusive Herd of Threshasaurus Sighted

Illusive Herd of Threshasaurus Sighted

by:
from issue:

The Threshasaurus’s large size and curious nature may appear antagonistic, but they are mostly curious and largely non-threatening. Be careful when approaching, however, as they do have sharp teeth and many fast moving, exposed pulleys.

A Step Back in Time with the Barron Tree Planter

A Step Back in Time with the Barron Tree Planter

by:
from issue:

The 18th century saw a tremendous interest in landscaping private parkland on a grand scale with the movement of entire hills and mature trees, all by man and horse power, to fulfill the designs of celebrated gardeners such as Capability Brown. In the mid 1800s the movement of mature trees was revolutionised by the introduction of the Barron tree transplanter. The first planter was designed and built by Barron for the transplantation of maturing trees at Elvaston Castle in Derbyshire.

Eighteen Dollar Harrow

Eighteen Dollar Harrow

by:
from issue:

This is the story of a harrow on a budget. I saw plans on the Tillers International website for building an adjustable spike tooth harrow. I modified the plans somewhat to suit the materials I had available and built a functional farm tool for eighteen dollars. The manufactured equivalent would have cost at least $300.

Wheel Hoe

The Wheel Hoe: A Tool For Shallow Tillage

When we bought this little farm I soon realized I needed a wheel hoe. The size of the horse and tractor dictated space wasting wide rows in crop production and, to some degree, so does my two wheeled tractor.

Two Log Cart Designs from Canada

Two Log Cart Designs from Canada

by:
from issue:

The problem horseloggers face is reducing skidding friction yet maintaining enough friction for holdback on steep skids. The cart had to be as simple and maneuverable as the basic two wheel log arch which dangles logs on chokers. We wanted it to be light, low, with no tongue weight, no lift motor to maintain, no arch to jam up and throw the teamster in a turn, and a low center of draft.

Disc Harrow Requirements

Disc Harrow Requirements

by:
from issue:

One of the most important requirements is disc blade concavity, that is, correct concavity. Further along we set forth the purposes of disc concavity. We feel it is important enough to devote the extra time and words in a discussion of the subject, because seldom is disc concavity talked about, and very few know that there is difference enough to cause good and bad work.

Fjordworks Cultural Evolution Part 2

Fjordworks: Cultural Evolution Part 2

For more than ten years we cultivated our market garden with the walk-behind cultivator. This past season we made the transition to the riding cultivator. I really enjoyed using this amazing implement. Our current team of Fjords are now mature animals (14 & 18 years old) and have been working together for 11 years, so they were certainly ready to work quietly and walk slowly enough to be effective with this precision tool.

Journal Guide