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Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

Cultivating Questions Concerning the Bioextensive Market Garden

by Anne and Eric Nordell of Trout Run, PA

Tailoring The Cover Crop-Tillage Combination To The Planting Window

Finding just the right cover crop-tillage combination for crops planted the last half of June has always been a real challenge in our location. While surface-tilling mature rye and vetch in May works well for fall crops established in July and August, this cover crop-tillage combo does not allow enough time for decomposition and moisture accumulation for end-of-June plantings. Working the rye and vetch a month earlier would provide a more desirable time frame between tilling and planting, but killing this overwintering cover at an immature stage like this often seems futile using a light-weight, two-horse disc. The knee-high live rye bounces back to life after each discing.

Discing a winterkilled cover of oats and Canadian field peas has proven much easier which is why we routinely use this cover crop mix for early spring crops planted in April and May. However, this winterkilled mix decomposes so quickly that by the beginning of June the oat-and-pea residues no longer provide much moisture conserving mulch.

The last two years we have experimented with winterkilled covers that produce a lot more biomass, such as the sorghum-sudangrass mentioned earlier, in the hopes that the resulting mulch of coarse, rot-resistant materials would create better conditions for planting cash crops around the summer solstice without irrigation. An alternative strategy for preparing a moist fertile seedbed for the late June planting window has been to try to figure out a more effective way to shallowly incorporate the overwintering immature rye the end of April.

An answer appeared in the form of Dan Fisher. He paid us a visit five years ago because he was intrigued with our adaptation of ridge-tillage to early season vegetable production. Part of his interest stemmed from the fact that he had helped to develop a ridge-till system for large-scale field crops during his tenure as a biological crop consultant in the Midwest. By contrast to our use of ridge-till as a planting system relying on winterkilled cover crops (see the Spring 2002 SFJ), Dan’s objective for ridge-tilling was the efficient incorporation and decomposition of a live cover crop, like rye, before a heavy feeding crop of corn.

As we understand it, preparation for Dan’s ingenious ridge-tillage method begins right after the previous fall harvest. The idea is to broadcast rye seed over the chopped corn stalks and then rip the ground deeply using a chisel plow equipped with large twisted shovels. The chiseling breaks up compaction caused during combining and incorporates the rye seed at the same time. The reason for using twisted shovels on the chisel plow is they aggressively churn up the earth, throwing the soil and crop residues into low ridges to encourage aerobic decomposition.

Growing the rye on the rough, chiseled ridges provides two important advantages the next spring in terms of sheet composting this overwintering cover crop. First, the ridged soil is noticeably warmer, drier and better aerated than flat ground, creating better conditions for both tillage and decomposition. Just as importantly, the ridged soil surface makes discing more effective by giving the disc blades more purchase than working a smooth field of rye. Dan claimed that knee-high rye would be ready for planting within 2-3 weeks after the first discing!

After Dan’s visit it occurred to us that ridged rye might also make our two-horse disc more efficient at knocking back an immature live cover. Instead of using a hard pulling chisel plow with twisted shovels, we relied on the modified two-row cultivator we call the “ridger” to incorporate the rye seed and form the low ridges.

Based on three year’s experimentation with this technique, we can say that ridged rye definitely makes our lightweight horsedrawn equipment more effective even if several discings are necessary to completely set back the knee-high rye. Our guess is that growing overwintering cover crops on low ridges would also prove to be a mechanical advantage for the tools pulled by a small Farmall tractor like the Super A.

In the following photos we try to detail the steps involved in establishing ridged rye on our farm for the 2002 growing season. We also compare this method for incorporating an overwintering cover crop in April with a winterkilled cover of waist-high sudex, planted in the same field, just to see which of these cover crop-tillage combinations is best suited for that challenging planting window the last half of June.

Ridged Rye Versus Sudex Before Midsummer Lettuce, Beans And Zucchini

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

1b. Field 3, in the Summer of 2001, was made to order for setting up a comparison between two different cover crop-tillage combinations. Rye on the north and south sides of this fallow field had been incorporated early enough to establish a mix of sudex and Donegal forage soybeans the beginning of August. These heat-loving annuals had already produced a good bit of cover a month later at the time this photo was taken.

In the middle of Field 3 had been our strawberry patch, established the previous spring along with other EARLY planted crops, and surface-tilled right after the last ripe berry was harvested, mid-July of 2001. After shallowly incorporating this heavily mulched perennial crop with the coultervator, disc, ridger and springtooth harrow, this area was now ready for seeding ridged rye.

We have found the best way to establish ridged rye is to incorporate the seed before forming the ridges. We do this the same way we would normally plant a cover crop on a flat field, first broad- casting the rye with a hand cranked cyclone seeder, and then working in the seed with one pass of the springtooth harrow as shown in this photo. Immediately after harrowing in the seed, we…

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

2b. …rolled the harrowed ground with the cultipacker to re-level and settle the soil. Firming the lightly tilled earth with this type of roller greatly improves germination of the broadcast seed by insuring good seed-to-soil contact and by bringing moisture back up to the surface via capillary action. Based on twenty years of dryland market gardening, we think the cultipacker in combination with lots of surface-tilled residues, is probably the most important tool for establishing crops without irrigation.

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

3b. We followed the cultipacker with the “ridger.” The three-inch-wide shovels attached to the spring shanks mound the soil and residues into low ridges somewhat approximating the effect of a fast-moving chisel plow with large twisted shovels. No doubt a similar setup could be designed for the Super A by rigging up some kind of toolbar to the back of this small cultivating tractor. We are not sure about the mechanics involved, but we are pretty certain that the horsepower requirements would not be the limiting factor. We say this with confidence because ridging loose soil is one of the earliest jobs for our two-horse team.

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

4b. Rye greening up on the ridges a couple of weeks later. A visitor checking out the ridged rye suggested that we might have gone about this all backwards! Instead of going to the trouble of creating a serrated field to make our horsedrawn disc more effective at incorporating the rye, why not put serrated blades on the disc? F.Y.I., the 4-5” high ridges spaced 17” apart give our small disc much more purchase than 2” notched blades!

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Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Fjordworks Cultural Evolution Part 1

Fjordworks: Cultural Evolution Part 1

For the teamster who first and foremost just plain loves driving horses, hitching the team to a fully restored and well-oiled cultivator is a wonderful way to spend time with horses. For those intrigued by the intricacies of machines and systems, the riding cultivator offers endless opportunities for tweaking and innovation. And for those interested in herbicide free, ecologically produced vegetable and field crops, the riding cultivator is a practical and precise tool for successful cultivation.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

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For the last ten years, I have made hay mostly with a single horse. This has not necessarily been out of choice, as at one time I had hoped to be farming on a larger scale with more horses. Anyway, it does little good to dwell on ‘what if ’. The reality is that I am able to make hay, and through making and modifying machinery, I probably have a better understanding of hay making and the mechanics of draught.

Step Ahead Horse Progress Days 2016

Step Ahead: 23rd Annual Horse Progress Days 2016

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I had only been to Horse Progress Days once before, at Mount Hope, Ohio in 2008. It had been an eye-opener, showing how strong and in touch with sustainable farming values the Amish are, and how innovative and sensible their efforts could be. So at the 23rd annual event in Howe, Indiana, I was there partly looking for signs of continuity, and partly for signs of change. Right off I spotted an Amish man with a Blue Tooth in his ear, talking as he walked along.

John Deere Model A Tractor

from issue:

Your John Deere Tractor has a range of speeds. These various speeds not only give you the flexibility and adaptability you want, but also they enable you to balance the load and the speed for maximum economy. However, if you are handling a light load and want to travel at slow speed, it is far better to put your tractor into the gear which gives you the speed you want than to use a higher gear and throttle down.

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

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Making a pair of tongs was a milestone for a lot of blacksmiths. In times gone past a Journeyman Smith meant just that, a smith that went upon a journey to learn more skills before taking a masters test. When the smith appeared at the door of a prospective employer, he/she would be required to demonstrate their skills. A yard stick for this was to make a pair of tongs.

Horsedrawn Plows and Plowing

Setting Up A Walking Plow

Here is a peek into the pages of Horsedrawn Plows and Plowing, written by SFJ editor and publisher Lynn R. Miller.

New Idea Manure Spreaders

New Idea Manure Spreaders

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There is no fixed method of loading. The best results are usually obtained by starting to load at the front end, especially in long straw manure. To get good results do not pile any manure into the cylinders. The height of the load depends upon the condition of the manure, the condition and nature of the field. Do not put on extra side boards. Be satisfied with the capacity of the machine and do not abuse it. Overloading will be the cause of loss of time sooner or later.

The Tip Cart

The Tip Cart

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When horses were the main source of power on every farm, in the British Isles it was the tip-cart, rather than the wagon which was the most common vehicle, and for anyone farming with horses, it is still an extremely useful and versatile piece of equipment. The farm cart was used all over the country, indeed in some places wagons were scarcely used at all, and many small farms in other areas only used carts.

International Harvester Fertilizer Distributor

International Harvester Fertilizer Distributor

from issue:

Because of the many varieties and mixtures or fertilizer, it is impossible to give complete tables listing them. It is, however, very easy to determine the distribution of any particular fertilizer by proceeding as follows. Put a cloth, or some large sheets of paper under the machine and turn the main driving wheel 57 times for 7′, 51 times for 8′ and 46 times for 9′ machine. Weigh the amount ejected which will indicate the amount distributed per one-tenth of an acre.

Ask A Teamster Perfect Hitching Tension

Ask A Teamster: Perfect Hitching Tension

In my experience, determining how tight, or loose, to hook the traces when hitching a team can be a bit challenging for beginners. This is because a number of interdependent dynamics and variables between the pulling system and the holdback system must be considered, and because it’s ultimately a judgment call rather than a simple measurement or clear cut rule.

Cockshutt Plow Found in Alberta

Cockshutt Plow Found in Alberta!

Dale Befus introduced me to a plow I had not set eyes on before, most unusual affair though Dale assures me not uncommon in Alberta, this implement is a beam-hung riding plow (wheels hang from the beam) as versus the frame-hung units (where the beam hangs under the wheel-supported frame).

Disc Harrow Requirements

Disc Harrow Requirements

from issue:

One of the most important requirements is disc blade concavity, that is, correct concavity. Further along we set forth the purposes of disc concavity. We feel it is important enough to devote the extra time and words in a discussion of the subject, because seldom is disc concavity talked about, and very few know that there is difference enough to cause good and bad work.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 3

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In parallel with making hay on the ground, nearly every year I have also made some hay on tripods. The attraction of this method is that it only needs one day of good weather to dry the grass sufficiently before it is put on the tripods, and then the hay takes very little harm no matter what the weather, usually coming out green, dry and smelling of hay two weeks later when it can be baled or stacked.

Fencing for Horses

Fencing for Horses

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The first wire we tried was a small gauge steel wire which was not terribly satisfactory with horses. Half the time they wouldn’t see it and would charge on through. And the other half of the time they would remember getting shocked by something they hadn’t seen there and would refuse to come through when we were standing there with gate wide open. We realized that visibility was an important consideration when working with horses.

Barn Door Plans

Barn Door Plans

Good barn doors, ones that will last a lifetime of opening, sliding and swinging in the wind, require careful design and construction. In 1946 the Starline Co., a barn building firm from the midwestern US, compiled a book of barn plans. These two diagrams were in that book and presented excellent information.

Illusive Herd of Threshasaurus Sighted

Illusive Herd of Threshasaurus Sighted

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The Threshasaurus’s large size and curious nature may appear antagonistic, but they are mostly curious and largely non-threatening. Be careful when approaching, however, as they do have sharp teeth and many fast moving, exposed pulleys.

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

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One of the challenges I constantly face using draft ponies is finding appropriately sized equipment. Mya is a Shetland-Welsh cross, standing at 11.2 hands. Most manure spreaders are big and heavy and require a team of horses. I needed something small and light and preferably wheeled to minimize impact to the land. My husband and I looked around our budding small farm for something light, wheeled, cheap, and available, and we quickly noticed our Vermont-style garden cart.

Planet Jr Two Horse Equipment

Planet Jr. Two-Horse Equipment

from issue:

This information on Planet Jr. two horse equipment is from an old booklet which had been shared with us by Dave McCoy, a horse-logger from our parts: “Think of the saving made in cultivating perfectly two rows of potatoes, beans, corn or any crop planted in rows not over 44 inches apart, at a single passage. This means double work at a single cost, for the arrangement of the fourteen teeth is such that all the ground is well tilled and no open furrows are left next to the row, while one man attends easily to the work, with one team.”

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