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Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

Cultivating Questions Concerning the Bioextensive Market Garden

by Anne and Eric Nordell of Trout Run, PA

Tailoring The Cover Crop-Tillage Combination To The Planting Window

Finding just the right cover crop-tillage combination for crops planted the last half of June has always been a real challenge in our location. While surface-tilling mature rye and vetch in May works well for fall crops established in July and August, this cover crop-tillage combo does not allow enough time for decomposition and moisture accumulation for end-of-June plantings. Working the rye and vetch a month earlier would provide a more desirable time frame between tilling and planting, but killing this overwintering cover at an immature stage like this often seems futile using a light-weight, two-horse disc. The knee-high live rye bounces back to life after each discing.

Discing a winterkilled cover of oats and Canadian field peas has proven much easier which is why we routinely use this cover crop mix for early spring crops planted in April and May. However, this winterkilled mix decomposes so quickly that by the beginning of June the oat-and-pea residues no longer provide much moisture conserving mulch.

The last two years we have experimented with winterkilled covers that produce a lot more biomass, such as the sorghum-sudangrass mentioned earlier, in the hopes that the resulting mulch of coarse, rot-resistant materials would create better conditions for planting cash crops around the summer solstice without irrigation. An alternative strategy for preparing a moist fertile seedbed for the late June planting window has been to try to figure out a more effective way to shallowly incorporate the overwintering immature rye the end of April.

An answer appeared in the form of Dan Fisher. He paid us a visit five years ago because he was intrigued with our adaptation of ridge-tillage to early season vegetable production. Part of his interest stemmed from the fact that he had helped to develop a ridge-till system for large-scale field crops during his tenure as a biological crop consultant in the Midwest. By contrast to our use of ridge-till as a planting system relying on winterkilled cover crops (see the Spring 2002 SFJ), Dan’s objective for ridge-tilling was the efficient incorporation and decomposition of a live cover crop, like rye, before a heavy feeding crop of corn.

As we understand it, preparation for Dan’s ingenious ridge-tillage method begins right after the previous fall harvest. The idea is to broadcast rye seed over the chopped corn stalks and then rip the ground deeply using a chisel plow equipped with large twisted shovels. The chiseling breaks up compaction caused during combining and incorporates the rye seed at the same time. The reason for using twisted shovels on the chisel plow is they aggressively churn up the earth, throwing the soil and crop residues into low ridges to encourage aerobic decomposition.

Growing the rye on the rough, chiseled ridges provides two important advantages the next spring in terms of sheet composting this overwintering cover crop. First, the ridged soil is noticeably warmer, drier and better aerated than flat ground, creating better conditions for both tillage and decomposition. Just as importantly, the ridged soil surface makes discing more effective by giving the disc blades more purchase than working a smooth field of rye. Dan claimed that knee-high rye would be ready for planting within 2-3 weeks after the first discing!

After Dan’s visit it occurred to us that ridged rye might also make our two-horse disc more efficient at knocking back an immature live cover. Instead of using a hard pulling chisel plow with twisted shovels, we relied on the modified two-row cultivator we call the “ridger” to incorporate the rye seed and form the low ridges.

Based on three year’s experimentation with this technique, we can say that ridged rye definitely makes our lightweight horsedrawn equipment more effective even if several discings are necessary to completely set back the knee-high rye. Our guess is that growing overwintering cover crops on low ridges would also prove to be a mechanical advantage for the tools pulled by a small Farmall tractor like the Super A.

In the following photos we try to detail the steps involved in establishing ridged rye on our farm for the 2002 growing season. We also compare this method for incorporating an overwintering cover crop in April with a winterkilled cover of waist-high sudex, planted in the same field, just to see which of these cover crop-tillage combinations is best suited for that challenging planting window the last half of June.

Ridged Rye Versus Sudex Before Midsummer Lettuce, Beans And Zucchini

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

1b. Field 3, in the Summer of 2001, was made to order for setting up a comparison between two different cover crop-tillage combinations. Rye on the north and south sides of this fallow field had been incorporated early enough to establish a mix of sudex and Donegal forage soybeans the beginning of August. These heat-loving annuals had already produced a good bit of cover a month later at the time this photo was taken.

In the middle of Field 3 had been our strawberry patch, established the previous spring along with other EARLY planted crops, and surface-tilled right after the last ripe berry was harvested, mid-July of 2001. After shallowly incorporating this heavily mulched perennial crop with the coultervator, disc, ridger and springtooth harrow, this area was now ready for seeding ridged rye.

We have found the best way to establish ridged rye is to incorporate the seed before forming the ridges. We do this the same way we would normally plant a cover crop on a flat field, first broad- casting the rye with a hand cranked cyclone seeder, and then working in the seed with one pass of the springtooth harrow as shown in this photo. Immediately after harrowing in the seed, we…

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

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Spotlight On: Livestock

The Cutting Edge

The Cutting Edge

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In the morning we awoke to a three quarters of a mile long swath of old growth mixed conifer and aspen trees, uprooted and strewn everywhere we looked. We hadn’t moved here to become loggers, but it looked like God had other plans! We had chosen to become caretakers of this beautiful place because of the peace and quiet, the clean air, the myriad of birds and wildlife! Thus, we were presented with a challenge: how to clean up this blowdown in a clean, sustainable way.

Harnessing the Future

Harnessing the Future

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En route to a remote pasture where the Belgian draft horses, Prince and Tom, are grazing, we survey the vast green landscape, a fine mist hovering in distant low lying areas. We are enveloped in a profusion of sweet, earthy balance. Interns and other workers start their chores; one pauses to check his smart phone. Scattered about are many animal-powered rustic implements. This rich and agriculturally diverse, peaceful place is steeped in contrasts: modern and ancient.

Ask A Teamster Driving

Ask A Teamster: Driving

I have been questioned (even criticized) about my slow, gentle, repetitious approach “taking too much time” and all the little steps being unnecessary when one can simply “hitch ‘em tied back to a well-broke horse they can’t drag around, and just let ‘em figure it out on their own.” I try to give horses the same consideration I would like if someone was teaching me how to do something new and strange.

Interpreting Your Horse's Body Language

Interpreting Your Horse’s Body Language

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The person who works closely with horses usually develops an intuitive feel for their well-being, and is able to sense when one of them is sick, by picking up the subtle clues from the horse’s body language. A good rider can tell when his mount is having an off day, just by small differences in how the horse travels or carries himself, or responds to things happening around him. And when at rest, in stall or pasture, the horse can also give you clues as to his mental and physical state.

Work Horse Handbook

Grooming Work Horses

The serviceability of the work horse may be increased or decreased according to the care which is bestowed upon him. If he is groomed in a perfunctory fashion his efficiency as an animal motor is lessened. On the other hand, if he is well groomed he is snappier and fresher in appearance and is constantly up on the bit.

Expanding the Use of the Heavy Draught Horse in Europe

Expanding the Use of the Heavy Draught Horse in Europe

“La Route du Poisson”, or “The Fish Run,” is a 24 hour long relay which starts from Boulogne on the coast at 9 am on Saturday and runs through the night to the outskirts of Paris with relays of heavy horse pairs until 9 am Sunday with associated events on the way. The relay “baton” is an approved cross country competition vehicle carrying a set amount of fresh fish.

Logging with Oxen in New Hampshire

Logging with Oxen in New Hampshire

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I hear time and time again at the outset of each workshop, “I don’t know anything about working oxen.” And I say, “There is no more fun than being a beginner.” Myself and the staff get great pleasure in sharing our knowledge of working steers and oxen. For as long as there are those interested in working cattle, the men I mentioned early in this article will not be forgotten. I believe there will always be cattle worked on small farms and in the woods.

Chicken Guano: Top-Notch Fertilizer

Whoever thought I’d be singing the praises of chicken poop? I am, and I’m not the only one. Chickens are walking nitrogen-rich manure bins.

The Broodmare in Fall

The Broodmare in Fall

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Mares are not the major emphasis in the fall since they have performed their task of foaling, lactating and being re-bred. After foals are weaned, most breeders tend to focus on weanlings and yearlings that are being prepared for shows, sales and/or performance in the case of long yearlings. Fall management of broodmares is far more critical than some breeders realize and can directly impact foaling and re-breeding successes next year.

Ask A Teamster Hauling Horses

Ask A Teamster: Hauling Horses

For a claustrophobic animal like the horse, being confined to a small box while speeding down the highway at 60 miles per hour is a mighty unnatural experience. Luckily, equines are adaptable animals and are likely to arrive in good condition – if – you make preparations beforehand and take some precautions. Here are some tips to help your horse stay healthy, safe, and comfortable while traveling.

Cultivating Questions A Horsedrawn Guidance System

Cultivating Questions: A Horsedrawn Guidance System

Market gardening became so much more relaxing for us and the horses after developing a Horsedrawn Guidance System. Instead of constantly steering the horses while trying to lay out straight rows or cultivate the vegetables, we could put the team on autopilot and focus our whole attention on these precision tasks. The guidance system has been so effective that we have trusted visiting chefs to cultivate the lettuce we planned on harvesting for them a few weeks later.

The Best Kept Secret, Revisited

The Best Kept Secret, Revisited

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At the same time that U.S. commercial beekeeping is circling down in a death spiral, hobby beekeeping is booming and almost every beekeeping club in the country has at least twice as many members as it did twenty years ago. What this means is that if you are fortunate enough to live in a place with relatively clean and varied sources of pollen and nectar, the potential for a successful family-sized commercial apiary is better now than it has been for many decades.

The Milk and Human Kindness Caring For The Pregnant Cow

The Milk and Human Kindness: Caring for the Pregnant Cow

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Good cheese comes from happy milk and happy milk comes from contented cows. So for goodness sake, for the sake of goodness in our farming ways we need to keep contentment, happiness and harmony as primary principles of animal husbandry. The practical manifestations of our love and appreciation are what make a small farm. Above and beyond the significant requirements of housing, feed and water is the care of your cow’s emotional life, provide for her own fulfillment. Let her raise her calf!

Cattle Handling Part 2 Use Good Cow Sense When Handling Cattle

Cattle Handling Part 2: Use Good Cow Sense When Handling Cattle

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Cattle are very intelligent, and are just as “trainable” as horses. Like horses, they “reason” differently than humans. Understanding the way cattle think and why they react to you the way they do can enable you handle them in ways that will help rather than hinder your purposes. If you can “think like a cow” you can more readily predict what cattle will do in various situations and be able to handle them with fewer problems.

Working Steers and Oxen on the Small Farm

Working Steers and Oxen on the Small Farm

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For centuries, the skills of training steers for work and the craft of building yokes and related equipment was passed down from generation to generation. It was common for a young boy or girl to be responsible for the care and training of a team from calves to the age of working capability. Many farms trained a team each year, either for sale or for future replacement in their own draft program.

Littlefield Notes Making Your Horses Work For You

LittleField Notes: Making Your Horses Work For You Part 1

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The practical everyday working of horses and mules in harness has always been at the heart of what the Small Farmer’s Journal is about. And like the Journal, a good horse powered farm keeps the horses at the center: the working nucleus of the farm. All the tractive effort for the pulling of machines, hauling in of crops, hauling out of manures, harvesting and planting is done as much as is practicable with the horses.

Icelandic Sheep

Icelandic Sheep

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I came to sheep farming from a background in the arts – with a passion for spinning and weaving. When we were able to leave our house in town to buy our small farm, a former dairy operation, I had no idea that the desire to have a couple of fiber animals would turn into full time shepherding. I had discovered Icelandic sheep, and was completely enamored of their beauty, their hardiness and their intelligence.

Livestock Guardians

Introducing Your Guard Dog To New Livestock And Other Dogs

When you introduce new animals to an established herd or flock, you should observe your dog’s reactions and behavior for a few days. Since he will be curious anyway, it is a good idea to introduce him to the new animals while he is leashed or to place the new animals in a nearby area.

Journal Guide