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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Evolution of a Permanent Bed System
Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

Typical look of our fields in late summer.

Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

by Lou Johns of Lodi, NY

Why would anyone, let alone a young farm couple struggling to make ends meet, want to walk down a blind alley? Compaction, shallow silt and clay loam, poor plant performance, mud, inexperience; compassion for soil life and compunction about causing environmental harm…

Dealing with these issues on our newly acquired farm in the Finger Lakes region of New York while we were trying to establish ourselves as reliable organic vegetable growers became troubling. After three or four years we could see that the nature of our farming practices, particularly the frequent tractor traffic, full width tillage, constant foot traffic, overhead irrigation, working soils in less than ideal conditions (early season planting, or harvesting in inclement weather), would continue to have detrimental effects on our soils, and ultimately on our crops and our pocketbooks. We needed to make some changes, and trading in the farm for some sandy river bottom wasn’t an option. Nor was finding a book, farm magazine, Cornell expert, or experienced farmer that offered a solution. While we knew that deep chisel plowing could remediate compaction, we wanted something more; a long term fix, something that could address the issues at the front end of the process rather than at the tail end. We were looking for a new approach, a routine that would be sustainable, rather than a rescue treatment for an ongoing problem.

We decided to convert our fields to permanent planting beds with grassy strips in between where all tractor, foot and irrigation pipe traffic would be concentrated. This was accomplished with one major modification to our tractors, widening their wheel tracks to allow them to straddle the 70” swath that our Kuhn rotovator makes. Four of our five tractors (David Brown 995 65 HP, Case 1210 4WD 65 HP, Hines cultivating tractor, which is similar to an Allis Chalmers G, and Farmall 350 with belly mounted cultivators) were modified with the help of a local welder, or more simply by utilizing the manufacturer’s designs, i.e. sliding wheels on axles or flipping the dish of the wheels. The rotovator was new at the time that we made the conversion, so we gave little thought to trading it in for a different width. In hindsight, a narrower bed would be easier to manage from a hand weeding and hoeing perspective.

In the initial year of the conversion we created the bed system out of fields that had been under full width tillage practices, so it was all bare ground starting out. The large rear tires of the David Brown set the width of the paths. We thought that they should be kept as narrow as possible, but after a few years of struggling to till straight enough to keep the rotovator from encroaching onto the tire tracks, or driving onto the adjoining beds, we started remaking beds with wider paths. After working with this system for 12 years, we are now making 60” wide paths. This change is partly driven by the issue of encroachment, but also by learning what it takes to maintain the vegetation growing in the pathways. Our stony soil hasn’t helped. Stones getting onto the paths from tillage operations have wrecked many a mower; cheap hand-pushed, modified cheap hand-pushed, mid-level self-propelled, and heavy duty walking tractor mounted BCS types. Today we’re making our paths with an International Cub Loboy 154 with a belly mounted 60” Woods mower, and also keeping the self-propelled and BCS type mowers for maintenance. Obviously, it has been a long struggle to find the right tool for this job.

The time involved in mowing has constantly pushed us to upgrade mowing equipment. Now with almost ten acres under the permanent bed system and five acres of fallowed ground to manage, moving to a more powerful riding mower allows us to accomplish this important task quickly and efficiently. This is especially important in the spring when paths are growing lushly and need to be mowed every other week.

Though learning how to maintain these paths has been a headache, the farm has realized many benefits since their establishment. The clippings from mowing add significant organic matter to the beds. The paths also create habitat for beneficial insect and spider populations, and widening them will only increase the habitat. Our sloping, undulating land was prone to erosion under the former tillage practices. With the bed system, which was designed to have the beds running across the predominant slope of the fields, erosion has been eliminated completely, even in the heaviest summer thunderstorms.

Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

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Spotlight On: Book Reviews

Starting Your Farm

Starting Your Farm: Chapter 3

What goes with the sale? What does not? Do not assume the irrigation pipe and portable hen houses are selling. Find out if they go with the deal, and in writing.

Chicken Guano: Top-Notch Fertilizer

Whoever thought I’d be singing the praises of chicken poop? I am, and I’m not the only one. Chickens are walking nitrogen-rich manure bins.

Build Your Own Earth Oven

An Introduction To Cob

Mixed with sand, water, and straw, a clayey-subsoil will dry into a very hard and durable material; indeed, it was the first, natural “concrete”. In the Americas, we call it “adobe”, which is originally from the Arabic “al-toba”, meaning “the brick.” Invading Moors brought the word to Spain from North Africa, where an ancient mud building tradition continues today.

Aboard the Planetary Spaceship

Aboard the Planetary Spaceship

SFJ Spring 2016 Preview: Edward O. Wilson’s new book, Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life, offers a plan for the problem of species extinction: the dominant species, man, must hold itself back, must relinquish half the earth’s surface to those endangered. It is a challenging and on the face of it improbable thought, expressed in a terse style. But his phrases are packed because the hour is late.

Starting Your Farm

Starting Your Farm: Chapter 5

You might think that your new farm is fenced all wrong, or that a certain tree is in the wrong place, or that a wet area would be better drained, or that this gully would make a good pond site, or that a depression in the road should be filled, or that the old sheds should all come down right away. Well maybe you’re right on all counts. But maybe, you’re wrong.

Audels Gardeners and Growers Guide

How to Store Vegetables

Potatoes may be safely stored in bits on a well drained spot. Spread a layer of straw for the floor. Pile the potatoes in a long, rather than a round pile. Cover the pile with straw or hay a foot deep.

Starting Your Farm

Starting Your Farm: Chapter 2

How do you learn the true status of that farm with the “for sale” sign? Here are some important pieces of information for you to learn about a given selling farm. The answers will most probably tell you how serious the seller is.

Barbed Wire History and Varieties

Book Excerpt: The invention of barb wire was the most important event in the solution of the fence problem. The question of providing fencing material had become serious, even in the timbered portions of the country, while the great prairie region was almost wholly without resource, save the slow and expensive process of hedging. At this juncture came barb wire, which was at once seen to make a cheap, effective, and durable fence, rapidly built and easily moved.

A Short History of the Horse-Drawn Mower

A Short History of the Horse-Drawn Mower

Book Excerpt: The enclosed gear, late model John Deere, Case, Oliver, David Bradley, and McCormick Deering International mowers I (we) are so fond of had a zenith of popular manufacture and use that lasted just short of 25 years. Millions of farmers with millions of mowers, built to have a serviceable life of 100 plus years, all pushed into the fence rows. I say, it was far too short of a period.

Woodstove Cookery at Home on the Range

An Illustrated Guide To The Wood Fired Cookstove

Illustrated guide to the wood stove and it’s accoutrements.

An Introduction To Grasslands Farming

From Dusty Shelves: A World War II era article on grassland farming.

How To Prune a Formal Hedge

How To Prune A Formal Hedge

This guide to hedge-trimming comes from The Pruning Answer Book by Lewis Hill and Penelope O’Sullivan. Q: What’s the correct way to shear a formal hedge? A: The amount of shearing depends upon the specific plant and whether the hedge is formal or informal. You’ll need to trim an informal hedge only once or twice a year, although more vigorous growers, such as privet and ninebark, may need additional clippings.

Basic Blacksmithing Techniques

Illustrated guide to basic blacksmithing techniques, an excerpt from Blacksmithing: Basics For The Homestead.

Farmer Pirates & Dancing Cows

Farmer Pirates & Dancing Cows

From humor-filled stories of a life of farming to incisive examinations of food safety, from magical moments of the re-enchantment of agriculture to the benches we would use for the sharpening of our tools, Farmer Pirates & Dancing Cows offers a full meal of thought and reflection.

Haying With Horses

Haying With Horses

If the reader is considering the construction of a barn we encourage you to give more than passing thought to allowing the structure of the gable to be open enough to accommodate the hanging of a trolley track. It is difficult or impossible to retrofit a truss-built barn, which may have many supports crisscrossing the inside gable, to receive hay jags. At least allowing for the option in a new construction design will leave the option for loose hay systems in the future.

How To Prune

From Dusty Shelves: Pruning Guide from 1917

"Work Horse Handbook, 2nd Edition" by Lynn Miller

Draft Collars and How To Size Them

It is difficult to accurately measure a horse’s neck without fitting. In other words, there are so many variables involved in the shape and size of a horse’s neck that the only accurate and easy way to size the neck is to use several collars and put them on one at a time until fitting is found.

Art of Working Horses

Lynn Miller’s New Book: Art of Working Horses

Art of Working Horses, by Lynn R. Miller, follows on the heels of his other eight Work Horse Library titles. This book tells the inside story of how people today find success working horses and mules in harness, whether it be on farm fields, in the woods, or on the road. Over 500 photos and illustrations accompany an anecdote-rich text which makes a case for the future of true horsepower.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT