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Evolution of a Permanent Bed System
Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

Typical look of our fields in late summer.

Evolution of a Permanent Bed System

by Lou Johns of Lodi, NY

Why would anyone, let alone a young farm couple struggling to make ends meet, want to walk down a blind alley? Compaction, shallow silt and clay loam, poor plant performance, mud, inexperience; compassion for soil life and compunction about causing environmental harm…

Dealing with these issues on our newly acquired farm in the Finger Lakes region of New York while we were trying to establish ourselves as reliable organic vegetable growers became troubling. After three or four years we could see that the nature of our farming practices, particularly the frequent tractor traffic, full width tillage, constant foot traffic, overhead irrigation, working soils in less than ideal conditions (early season planting, or harvesting in inclement weather), would continue to have detrimental effects on our soils, and ultimately on our crops and our pocketbooks. We needed to make some changes, and trading in the farm for some sandy river bottom wasn’t an option. Nor was finding a book, farm magazine, Cornell expert, or experienced farmer that offered a solution. While we knew that deep chisel plowing could remediate compaction, we wanted something more; a long term fix, something that could address the issues at the front end of the process rather than at the tail end. We were looking for a new approach, a routine that would be sustainable, rather than a rescue treatment for an ongoing problem.

We decided to convert our fields to permanent planting beds with grassy strips in between where all tractor, foot and irrigation pipe traffic would be concentrated. This was accomplished with one major modification to our tractors, widening their wheel tracks to allow them to straddle the 70” swath that our Kuhn rotovator makes. Four of our five tractors (David Brown 995 65 HP, Case 1210 4WD 65 HP, Hines cultivating tractor, which is similar to an Allis Chalmers G, and Farmall 350 with belly mounted cultivators) were modified with the help of a local welder, or more simply by utilizing the manufacturer’s designs, i.e. sliding wheels on axles or flipping the dish of the wheels. The rotovator was new at the time that we made the conversion, so we gave little thought to trading it in for a different width. In hindsight, a narrower bed would be easier to manage from a hand weeding and hoeing perspective.

In the initial year of the conversion we created the bed system out of fields that had been under full width tillage practices, so it was all bare ground starting out. The large rear tires of the David Brown set the width of the paths. We thought that they should be kept as narrow as possible, but after a few years of struggling to till straight enough to keep the rotovator from encroaching onto the tire tracks, or driving onto the adjoining beds, we started remaking beds with wider paths. After working with this system for 12 years, we are now making 60” wide paths. This change is partly driven by the issue of encroachment, but also by learning what it takes to maintain the vegetation growing in the pathways. Our stony soil hasn’t helped. Stones getting onto the paths from tillage operations have wrecked many a mower; cheap hand-pushed, modified cheap hand-pushed, mid-level self-propelled, and heavy duty walking tractor mounted BCS types. Today we’re making our paths with an International Cub Loboy 154 with a belly mounted 60” Woods mower, and also keeping the self-propelled and BCS type mowers for maintenance. Obviously, it has been a long struggle to find the right tool for this job.

The time involved in mowing has constantly pushed us to upgrade mowing equipment. Now with almost ten acres under the permanent bed system and five acres of fallowed ground to manage, moving to a more powerful riding mower allows us to accomplish this important task quickly and efficiently. This is especially important in the spring when paths are growing lushly and need to be mowed every other week.

Though learning how to maintain these paths has been a headache, the farm has realized many benefits since their establishment. The clippings from mowing add significant organic matter to the beds. The paths also create habitat for beneficial insect and spider populations, and widening them will only increase the habitat. Our sloping, undulating land was prone to erosion under the former tillage practices. With the bed system, which was designed to have the beds running across the predominant slope of the fields, erosion has been eliminated completely, even in the heaviest summer thunderstorms.

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Spotlight On: Book Reviews

Dont Eat the Seed Corn

Don’t Eat the Seed Corn: Strategies & Prospects for Human Survival

from issue:

Gary Paul Nabhan’s book “WHERE OUR FOOD COMES FROM: Retracing Nikolay Vavilov’s Quest to End Famine” (Island Press, 2009) is a weighty tome, freighted with implications. But as befits its subject it is also portable and travels well, a deft exploration of two trips around the world, that of the author following in the footsteps of a long-gone mentor he never met, the Russian pioneer botanist and geneticist Nikolay Vavilov (1887-1943).

Wheel Hoe

The Wheel Hoe: A Tool For Shallow Tillage

When we bought this little farm I soon realized I needed a wheel hoe. The size of the horse and tractor dictated space wasting wide rows in crop production and, to some degree, so does my two wheeled tractor.

McCormick Deering/International No 7 vs no 9

McCormick Deering/International: No. 7 versus No. 9

McCormick Deering/International’s first enclosed gear model was the No. 7, an extremely successful and highly popular mower of excellent design.

Chicken Guano: Top-Notch Fertilizer

Whoever thought I’d be singing the praises of chicken poop? I am, and I’m not the only one. Chickens are walking nitrogen-rich manure bins.

Horse Sense for Plain Farming

Horse Sense for Plain Farming

Book Review – The New Horse-Powered Farm by Stephen Leslie: Working with horses is not something you can learn exclusively through watching DVD training videos and attending workshops and seminars. These things and experiences can be very useful as auxiliary aids to our training, but they cannot replace the value of a long-term relationship with a skilled mentor.

Book Review Butchering

Two New Butchering Volumes

Danforth’s BUTCHERING is an unqualified MASTERPIECE! One which actually gives me hope for the furtherance of human kind and the ripening of good farming everywhere because, in no small part, of this young author’s sensitive comprehension of the modern disconnect with food, feeding ourselves, and farming.

Art of Working Horses Hunter Review

Art of Working Horses – A Review

from issue:

Over 40 years Lynn Miller has written a whole library of valuable and indispensable books about the craft of working horses. He has helped beginners acquire the basics of harnessing and working around horses, and has led those further along to focus on the specific demands of plowing, mowing, haying and related subjects. But, in a fitting culmination, his latest book, The Art of Working Horses, raises its sights and openly ponders secrets at the heart of the work that may over time elevate it to an art.

Making Buttermilk

The Small-Scale Dairy

What kind of milk animal would best suit your needs? For barnyard matchmaking to be a success, you need to address several concerns.

The Horsedrawn Mower Book

Removing the Wheels from a McCormick Deering No. 9 Mower

How to remove the wheels of a No. 9 McCormick Deering Mower, an excerpt from The Horsedrawn Mower Book.

Storey's Guide to Keeping Honey Bees

Storey’s Guide To Keeping Honey Bees

It is well known that the value of pollination and its resultant seed set and fruit formation outweigh any provided by honey bee products like honey and beeswax.

Apples of North America

Freedom has been called the ugly duckling of disease-resistant apple varieties. But that shouldn’t detract from its many merits. These include the freedom from apple-scab infection for which it was named, a high rate of productivity, and an ability to serve as a good pollinator for its more attractive sibling, Liberty.

Honoring Our Teachers

Honoring Our Teachers

from issue:

I believe that there exist many great practicing teachers, some of who deliberately set out to become one and others who may have never graduated from college but are none-the-less excellent and capable teachers. I would hazard a guess that many readers of Small Farmer’s Journal know more than one teacher who falls within this latter category. My grandfather, and artist and author Eric Sloane, were two such teachers.

Haying With Horses

Haying With Horses

If the reader is considering the construction of a barn we encourage you to give more than passing thought to allowing the structure of the gable to be open enough to accommodate the hanging of a trolley track. It is difficult or impossible to retrofit a truss-built barn, which may have many supports crisscrossing the inside gable, to receive hay jags. At least allowing for the option in a new construction design will leave the option for loose hay systems in the future.

Aboard the Planetary Spaceship

Aboard the Planetary Spaceship

SFJ Spring 2016 Preview: Edward O. Wilson’s new book, Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life, offers a plan for the problem of species extinction: the dominant species, man, must hold itself back, must relinquish half the earth’s surface to those endangered. It is a challenging and on the face of it improbable thought, expressed in a terse style. But his phrases are packed because the hour is late.

Barbed Wire History and Varieties

Book Excerpt: The invention of barb wire was the most important event in the solution of the fence problem. The question of providing fencing material had become serious, even in the timbered portions of the country, while the great prairie region was almost wholly without resource, save the slow and expensive process of hedging. At this juncture came barb wire, which was at once seen to make a cheap, effective, and durable fence, rapidly built and easily moved.

Retrofitting a Fireplace with a Woodstove

How to Retrofit a Fireplace with a Woodstove

Because the venting requirements for a wood stove are different than for a fireplace you need to retrofit a stainless steel chimney liner. A liner provides the draft necessary to ensure that the stove will operate safely and efficiently.

Timing the Bounce

Timing the Bounce: Resilient Agriculture Meets Climate Change

from issue:

In her new book, Resilient Agriculture: Cultivating Food Systems for a Changing Climate, Laura Lengnick assumes a dispassionate, businesslike tone and sets about exploring the farming strategies of twenty-seven award-winning farmers in six regions of the continental United States. Her approach gets well past denial and business-as-usual, to see what can be done, which strategies are being tried, and how well they are working.

Starting Your Farm

Starting Your Farm: Chapter 3

What goes with the sale? What does not? Do not assume the irrigation pipe and portable hen houses are selling. Find out if they go with the deal, and in writing.

Journal Guide