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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2
Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Cultivator set up with disc hillers.

by Stephen Leslie with technical assistance provided by Kerry Gawalt, both of Cedar Mountain Farm at Cobb Hill co-housing in Hartland, VT.

Introduction

On our farm all the crops in our 4 acre market garden are planted and cultivated on the flat (no bed or ridge forming). This simplified approach allows us to cultivate crops with very few changes necessary to the set-up of attachments on the riding cultivator. This kind of streamlining is important because we are a diversified farm, managing intensively grazed dairy cows and extensive hay land, so the labor pool can sometimes get spread pretty thin. We have a second riding cultivator that is set-up for hilling corn, leeks, and potatoes. We commit a 1/4 acre section to potatoes each year (this year 18 rows in a plot measuring roughly 60’ x 180’). In the past we found that a potato section of this size can be very effectively hilled with a single-horse drawn hiller (variously known as a middle-buster or potato plow). More recently we shifted to using disc hiller attachments on the riding cultivator. The advantage with this set up is that the attachments can be set at successively wider spacing for a second and even third hilling. Our potatoes are planted on a 36” row spacing to accommodate our horse drawn potato digger. The cultivator that we use for hilling the potatoes is set up with a 48” wheel base which gives us an ample comfort zone to work in by allowing a 24” margin on either side of the row of potatoes upon which to set up the gangs of the cultivator with discs, shovels, and sweeps. At the end of Part One we had completed our first disc hilling with the riding cultivator. This was followed up by two more successive hillngs at 7-10 day intervals. For the 2nd and 3rd hilling we adjusted the shanks of the disc hiller attachments from the upfront and innermost position on the gangs to the further back middle position (from 24” to 32”) to accommodate the burgeoning foliage and to insure that the discs were not cutting into the root zone.

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Disc hiller attachments in the potato patch at Orchard Hill Farm – photo courtesy of Ken Laing

A week or so after the final hilling a weed bloom sprouted in the trough between rows. We thought the riding cultivator might be too aggressive and undo the sides of the hills, so we went through the patch with the single horse walk behind cultivator set to its narrowest width (about 15”). This tool did a good job of cultivating the trough without disturbing the hills or “pruning” the root zone of the spuds. At this point we had done all we could to create optimal growing conditions for the potatoes. Now it was up to the vicissitudes of weather to determine the success of our harvest.

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Ann Siri’s “All-In-One” tool used to hill potatoes – photo courtesy of Walt Bernard

Water

It is pretty remarkable to consider that even as nutritionally concentrated a food staple as the potato is it is about 90% water. Typical of most vegetable crops, potatoes require about 1” of rain (or supplemental irrigation) per week to maintain optimal growth. Ideally this water will be applied incrementally rather than in one (potentially soil eroding) blast as in a 1” per hour thunder shower. With our limited irrigation capacity we struggle to keep our market garden adequately watered in a dry year. Such was the case this season, by mid-July we were in the throes of a mini-drought with prospects for a good 2nd cutting of hay beginning to appear dim, pastures looking scorched, and vegetable crops limping along with just barely enough soil moisture (except for our 1/2 acre of cucurbits and night-shades on plastic with drip who were loving all the heat and sunshine).

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Cultivater setup with Lely weeder for blind cultivation – photo courtesy of Walt Bernard

Within the growth cycle of the potato the most critical point for insuring adequate watering is shortly after the plants flower because it is at this junction that they begin to put their energy into tuber development. This season we got lucky to catch just enough intermittent thunder showers to augment our overhead irrigation and deliver sufficient water to the spuds (unlike so many farmers who suffered under intense drought conditions). In other dry years we have brought in drip irrigation after the final cultivation. We do not have a line for every row, but instead manually lift the lines over one row to the next. The biggest factor affecting potato yields this year was higher than “normal” temperatures from the very start of the season and continuing on through the summer.

Potato Digger

An old tool that is still commonly used for digging potatoes on many contemporary small horse powered farms is a middle buster designed to be pulled by a team. Many farm museums have fine examples of such tools for digging spuds in which the double-sided share rides behind a set of depth gauge wheels and is trailed by long tines for catching the lifted spuds and depositing them on the surface free of dirt. These types of team implements for digging potatoes were the first big innovation in horse powered potato harvesting in the mid-19th century. Prior to the horse drawn digger the limitation on how many potatoes a farmer could plant was how many the farm crew could dig by hand. The basic design of these early diggers works so well that new models of this type of digger are once again being manufactured by contemporary horse drawn equipment suppliers. As discussed in Part One, besides the walk-behind version, the middle buster attachment is often seen nowadays on a tool-carrier cart designed to be pulled by two horses and to straddle the row.

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Spotlight On: Book Reviews

Haying With Horses

Hitching Horses To A Mower

When hitching to the mower, first make sure it’s on level ground and out of gear. The cutter bar should be fastened up in the vertical or carrier position. This is for safety of all people in attendance during hitching.

How To Prune a Formal Hedge

How To Prune A Formal Hedge

This guide to hedge-trimming comes from The Pruning Answer Book by Lewis Hill and Penelope O’Sullivan. Q: What’s the correct way to shear a formal hedge? A: The amount of shearing depends upon the specific plant and whether the hedge is formal or informal. You’ll need to trim an informal hedge only once or twice a year, although more vigorous growers, such as privet and ninebark, may need additional clippings.

An Introduction To Farm Woodlands

The farm woodland is that portion of the farm which either never was cleared for tillage or pasture, or was later given back to woods growth. Thus it occupies land that never was considered suitable, or later proved unsuitable, for farm enterprises.

Storey's Guide to Keeping Honey Bees

Storey’s Guide To Keeping Honey Bees

It is well known that the value of pollination and its resultant seed set and fruit formation outweigh any provided by honey bee products like honey and beeswax.

Livestock Guardians

Introducing Your Guard Dog To New Livestock And Other Dogs

When you introduce new animals to an established herd or flock, you should observe your dog’s reactions and behavior for a few days. Since he will be curious anyway, it is a good idea to introduce him to the new animals while he is leashed or to place the new animals in a nearby area.

Starting Your Farm

Starting Your Farm: Chapter 5

You might think that your new farm is fenced all wrong, or that a certain tree is in the wrong place, or that a wet area would be better drained, or that this gully would make a good pond site, or that a depression in the road should be filled, or that the old sheds should all come down right away. Well maybe you’re right on all counts. But maybe, you’re wrong.

How To Prune

From Dusty Shelves: Pruning Guide from 1917

The Horsedrawn Mower Book

Removing the Wheels from a McCormick Deering No. 9 Mower

How to remove the wheels of a No. 9 McCormick Deering Mower, an excerpt from The Horsedrawn Mower Book.

McCormick Deering/International No 7 vs no 9

McCormick Deering/International: No. 7 versus No. 9

McCormick Deering/International’s first enclosed gear model was the No. 7, an extremely successful and highly popular mower of excellent design.

Audels Gardeners and Growers Guide

How to Store Vegetables

Potatoes may be safely stored in bits on a well drained spot. Spread a layer of straw for the floor. Pile the potatoes in a long, rather than a round pile. Cover the pile with straw or hay a foot deep.

"Work Horse Handbook, 2nd Edition" by Lynn Miller

Draft Collars and How To Size Them

It is difficult to accurately measure a horse’s neck without fitting. In other words, there are so many variables involved in the shape and size of a horse’s neck that the only accurate and easy way to size the neck is to use several collars and put them on one at a time until fitting is found.

Aboard the Planetary Spaceship

Aboard the Planetary Spaceship

SFJ Spring 2016 Preview: Edward O. Wilson’s new book, Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life, offers a plan for the problem of species extinction: the dominant species, man, must hold itself back, must relinquish half the earth’s surface to those endangered. It is a challenging and on the face of it improbable thought, expressed in a terse style. But his phrases are packed because the hour is late.

Apples of North America

Freedom has been called the ugly duckling of disease-resistant apple varieties. But that shouldn’t detract from its many merits. These include the freedom from apple-scab infection for which it was named, a high rate of productivity, and an ability to serve as a good pollinator for its more attractive sibling, Liberty.

A Short History of the Horse-Drawn Mower

A Short History of the Horse-Drawn Mower

Book Excerpt: The enclosed gear, late model John Deere, Case, Oliver, David Bradley, and McCormick Deering International mowers I (we) are so fond of had a zenith of popular manufacture and use that lasted just short of 25 years. Millions of farmers with millions of mowers, built to have a serviceable life of 100 plus years, all pushed into the fence rows. I say, it was far too short of a period.

Build Your Own Earth Oven

An Introduction To Cob

Mixed with sand, water, and straw, a clayey-subsoil will dry into a very hard and durable material; indeed, it was the first, natural “concrete”. In the Americas, we call it “adobe”, which is originally from the Arabic “al-toba”, meaning “the brick.” Invading Moors brought the word to Spain from North Africa, where an ancient mud building tradition continues today.

Book Review Butchering

Two New Butchering Volumes

Danforth’s BUTCHERING is an unqualified MASTERPIECE! One which actually gives me hope for the furtherance of human kind and the ripening of good farming everywhere because, in no small part, of this young author’s sensitive comprehension of the modern disconnect with food, feeding ourselves, and farming.

Why Farm

Farming For Art’s Sake: Farming As An Artform

Farming as a vocation is more of a way of living than of making a living. Farming at its best is an Art, at its worst it is an industry. Farming can be an Art because it allows at every juncture for the farmer to create form from his or her vision.

Art of Working Horses Hunter Review

Art of Working Horses – A Review

by:
from issue:

Over 40 years Lynn Miller has written a whole library of valuable and indispensable books about the craft of working horses. He has helped beginners acquire the basics of harnessing and working around horses, and has led those further along to focus on the specific demands of plowing, mowing, haying and related subjects. But, in a fitting culmination, his latest book, The Art of Working Horses, raises its sights and openly ponders secrets at the heart of the work that may over time elevate it to an art.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT