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Fjordworks Plowing the Market Garden
Fjordworks Plowing the Market Garden

Jay Bailey and Suffolks plowing in a clover cover crop. Illustration by Stephen Leslie.

Fjordworks: Plowing the Market Garden

by Stephen Leslie with technical assistance provided by Kerry Gawalt, both of Cedar Mountain Farm at Cobb Hill co-housing in Hartland, VT.

Meditations on the Art and Science of the Moldboard Plow

PART ONE: To Plow or Not to Plow?

The plow is a tool that is as old as agriculture itself. In many parts of the world people can still be found tilling the soil with primitive “scratch” plows with a hardened wooden point pulled behind oxen, buffalo, donkeys, or horses. The invention in 18th Century England of the cast-iron moldboard plow constituted the beginnings of the modern agricultural revolution. It allowed farmers to work heavier soil types unsuitable to the scratch plow or wooden moldboards and, once coupled with an efficient harness system for hitching to horses, greatly expanded the amount of land that could be tilled in a season.

Moldboard plows fashioned of wood were already in use by farmers of the Roman Empire. The earliest known moldboard plows date back to Ancient China of the Third Century BCE. Known as kuan, these plowshares were fabricated out of malleable cast iron. They featured a central ridge terminating in a sharp point designed to cut the soil and wings which sloped up towards the center to throw the soil off the face of the share and reduce friction. This type of plow was first brought to Holland in the 17th Century and was probably the first iron plow to be seen in Europe. The Chinese plow may have been the inspiration for the rapid improvements that occurred in European designs thereafter. The new Dutch plows had a curved wooden moldboard reinforced with an iron point and cutting edge.

The first routine use of the moldboard plow in Northern Europe dates back to the early 9th century, a time period that corresponds to the widespread adoption of the three-field crop rotation scheme of cereal grains, legumes (peas, beans, lentils), and fallow. This period marked the beginning of a gradual transition from oxen to horse as the principal mode of draft power on the farm. Prior to this, a two-field rotation had been common practice, but the adoption of horse power over oxen required a more intensive land use pattern because of the horse’s higher feeding requirements. In compensation, the work horse provided a faster, longer-lived, more versatile form of motive traction.

The development of the steel moldboard plow by John Deere allowed early 19th Century American farmers to turn over two acres of sod in a day (prior to this an acre was the approximate measure of how much a team of oxen or horses could be expected to plow in one day). This might not sound like much compared to the 20-30 acres that can now be typically plowed in a day with a tractor, but if you consider the capital investment necessary to own the tractor, the team of horses hitched to this elegantly simple implement begins to make sense to the small scale producer.

Fjordworks Plowing the Market Garden

Vintage two way plow. Sam White and Belgians.

For centuries, primary tillage for the production of annual crops has traditionally begun with a moldboard plow and even today the moldboard is still the basic utilitarian tool for soil and crop management on many small farms. Even though plowing is a common task it requires attention and skill. True mastery of the horse-drawn walking plow constitutes an art form. You have to know the intricacies of the tool and be a highly competent teamster to be effective. It can take years of practice. Prior to the introduction of tractors on the estates of Great Britain the plowman held an elevated position distinct from all other farm laborers. In this series of articles we will look at specific applications of both horse-drawn walking and riding plows in the management of a market garden.

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Spotlight On: People

Biodynamic Meeting at Ruby and Amber’s Organic Farm

Biodynamic Meeting at Ruby and Amber’s Organic Farm

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One weekend I attended a Biodynamic meeting at Ruby and Amber’s Organic Farm in Dorena, Oregon, in the Row River Valley, just east of Cottage Grove. I always enjoy seeing other food growing operations, as this is such an infinitely broad subject, there is always much to learn from others’ experiences. At this farm, draft horses are used for much of the work.

New York Horsefarmer Ed Button and his Belgians

New York Horsefarmer: Ed Button and his Belgians

In New York State one does not explore the world of draft horses long before the name of Ed Button is invariably and most respectfully mentioned. Ed’s name can be heard in the conversations of nearly everyone concerned with heavy horses from the most experienced teamsters to the most novice horse hobbyists. His career with Belgians includes a vast catalog of activities: showing, pulling, training, farming, breeding, and driving, which Ed says, “I’ve been doing since I was old enough to hold the lines.”

ODHBA 2016 Plowing Match

ODHBA 2016 Plowing Match

The Oregon Draft Horse Breeders Association hosted their 50th Anniversary Plowing Match at the Yamhill Valley Heritage Center in McMinnville, Oregon on April 9, 2016. Small Farmer’s Journal was lucky enough to attend and capture some of the action to share.

Honoring Our Teachers

Honoring Our Teachers

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I believe that there exist many great practicing teachers, some of who deliberately set out to become one and others who may have never graduated from college but are none-the-less excellent and capable teachers. I would hazard a guess that many readers of Small Farmer’s Journal know more than one teacher who falls within this latter category. My grandfather, and artist and author Eric Sloane, were two such teachers.

Hand-Harvested Food Challenge

The Hand-Harvested Food Challenge

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In the winter of 2011, Daniel mentioned a fourteen-year-old student of his who had spent a whole month eating only foods gathered from the wild. “Could we go for two days on the hand-harvested food we have here?’ he asked. “Let’s give it a try!” I responded with my usual enthusiasm. We assembled the ingredients on the table. Everything on that table had passed through our hands. We knew all the costs and calories associated with it. No hidden injustice, no questionable pesticides. We felt joy at living in such an edible world.

Fjordworks A History of Wrecks Part 3

Fjordworks: A History of Wrecks Part 3

Working with horses can and should be safe and fun and profitable. The road to getting there need not be so fraught with danger and catastrophe as ours has been. I hope the telling of our story, in both its disasters and successes will not dissuade but rather inspire would-be teamsters to join the horse-powered ranks and avoid the pitfalls of the un-mentored greenhorn.

Expanding the Use of the Heavy Draught Horse in Europe

Expanding the Use of the Heavy Draught Horse in Europe

“La Route du Poisson”, or “The Fish Run,” is a 24 hour long relay which starts from Boulogne on the coast at 9 am on Saturday and runs through the night to the outskirts of Paris with relays of heavy horse pairs until 9 am Sunday with associated events on the way. The relay “baton” is an approved cross country competition vehicle carrying a set amount of fresh fish.

Farmrun John Erskine

John Erskine

John Erskine farms with horses in Sequim, WA.

Farmrun George's Boots

George’s Boots

George Ziermann has been making custom measured, hand made shoes for 40 years. He’s looking to get out, but can’t find anyone to get in.

B. Adroit's Profiles in Passion: Herscel Gouda

B. Adroit’s Profiles in Passion: Herscel Gouda

Excerpt: Um, ya, you’re just gonna have to read this one.

UCSC Farm & Garden Apprenticeship

UC Santa Cruz Farm & Garden Apprenticeship

UC Santa Cruz is thrilled to welcome applications to the 50th Anniversary year of the UCSC Farm and Garden Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture. The 39 apprentices each year arrive from all regions of the US and abroad, and represent a wide spectrum of ages, backgrounds, and interests. We have a range of course fee waivers available to support participation in the Apprenticeship.

Fjordworks: A History of Wrecks Part 1

Fjordworks: A History of Wrecks Part 1

I am certainly not the most able of dairymen, nor the most skilled among vegetable growers, and by no means am I to be counted amongst the ranks of the master teamsters of draft horses. If there is anything remarkable about my story it is that someone could know so little about farming as I did when I started out and still manage to make a good life of it.

Farmrun A Reverence for Excellence

A Reverence for Excellence

A portrait of Maple Rock Farm and Hogstone’s Wood Oven, a unique farm and restaurant on Orcas Island where the farmers are the chefs, A Reverence for Excellence strives to be an honest portrayal of the patience, toil, conviction and faith required of an agrarian livelihood.

The Way To The Farm

Lise Hubbe stops mid-furrow at plowing demonstration for Evergreen State College students. She explains that the plow was going too deep…

Sustainable

Sustainable

Sustainable is a documentary film that weaves together expert analysis of America’s food system with a powerful narrative of one extraordinary farmer who is determined to create a sustainable future for his community. In a region dominated by commodity crops, Marty Travis has managed to maintain a farming model that is both economically viable and environmentally safe.

Livery and Feed

Livery & Feed

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A livery stable, for the benefit of those who never heard of one, was an establishment which catered to horses. It boarded them, doctored them, and bred them, whenever any of these services were required. It also furnished “rigs” — a horse and buggy or perhaps a team, for anyone who wished to ride, rather than walk, about the town or countryside. It was a popular service for traveling men who came into town on the railway train and wanted to call on customers in cross-road communities.

Central Oregon Food and Farms

Central Oregon Food and Farms

Who is growing food in the high desert? How can you find it? And how can you contribute to creating a vibrant local food community in Central Oregon? Find out here! By consuming more Central Oregon grown food we keep money in our region, support local businesses, and have delicious, fresh food to eat.

Mule Powered Wrecker Service

Mule Drawn Wrecker Service

This will only add fuel to those late night discoursians about the relative merits of horses over mules or viciversy. Is the horse the smarter one for hitching a ride or is the mule the smarter one for recognizing the political opportunity which this all represents? In any event these boys know what they are doing, or should, so don’t try this at home without horse tranquilizers. Remember that politics is a luke warm bowl of thin soup.

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