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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Cultivating Questions

Dear Nordells,

I have enjoyed your articles thoroughly and have learned a whole lot. The recent section on phosphorus prompted me to ask about fertilizer suppliers.

We (our family) have had difficulty locating soft rock phosphate, and frankly, any other organic rock fertilizers in quantity. Locally, we are aware of none; shipping from elsewhere usually is outrageously priced. Where do you get your phosphate? How about greensand? Do you have any ideas for finding a local or otherwise reasonable distributor?

Once again, your column is most informative. Any help you can give me regarding suppliers would be greatly appreciated!

Thanks,

Stacy Gerry

Pleasant View, TN

The sources of rock phosphate that we use are actually closer to Tennessee than Pennsylvania. For instance, the black rock product which we applied directly to the fields for a few years is mined in North Carolina while the colloidal clay rock phosphate which we use in the composting pigpens is a byproduct of the phosphate mines in Florida.

The least expensive way we know of to purchase these minerals is to order a tractor trailer load direct from the sources. We have inquired about prices from wholesale distributors who advertize their services in Acres-USA (PO Box 91299, Austin, TX 78709 1-800-355-5313). For example, Hugh Paddock of Greenwood, IN (317-881-6143) quoted us a price in January 1998 of $72/ton for the Lonfosco brand of colloidal clay soft rock delivered to our farm from Minehead, Florida. We had intended to split a truckload with several dairy farmers in the area, but due to the low milk prices at the time we were unsuccessful at putting a group order together. Needless to say, we did not have a large enough storage area — or pocketbook — to take the whole 22 ton load!

Instead, we have relied on local distributors for rock mineral. In the 80’s, we purchased soft rock by the pickup load for $3.00/50 lbs bag from a farmer located 15 miles away. He became a distributor for Earth-Rite natural fertilizers (633 Quarry Rd., Gap, PA 17527 717-442-4171) in order to get their products delivered at discounted prices. Becoming a distributor would be one way to get these materials into your area without paying retail prices.

When this farmer retired in the early 90’s, we began purchasing rock phosphate from a Fertrell salesman who stops at the farm on his monthly route supplying feed minerals to dairy farmers in the area. This arrangement certainly is convenient, although the prices we are now paying for phosphorus have almost doubled over what we paid in the 80’s. (Fertrell is a national supplier of natural fertilizers and livestock supplements. Contact the main office at PO box 265, Bainbridge, PA 17502 #717-367-1566 for their closest distributor.

Now that the phosphorus levels in the market garden appear more than adequate, we no longer purchase rock phosphate for direct application to the vegetable fields. However, we continue to purchase rock minerals to add to the composting process and to slowly but surely upgrade our long neglected pastures. The payback for remineralizing these malnourished paddocks has been a significant increase in volunteer clover the year after applying this slow-release form of phosphorus.

Keep in mind that the rock phosphate products on the market have different analyses and physical characteristics. For example, the collodial clay products contain about 18% P and are very dusty. We think the black rock, containing over 30% P, is better suited for field application with the horse drawn fertilizer spreader pictured in the Winter 2000 photo essay. In fact, this fine, sandlike material is so free flowing we find it advantageous to mix in a coarser material, like gypsum, or some of our own screen compost. Mixing in these materials slows down the flow of the black rock and should make the phosphorus more available to the soil life and the plants.

On the other hand, we prefer the collodial clay type of soft rock for use in the composting pigpens because it does a better job of tying down the ammonia in the fresh additions of horse manure. Also, this is the only type of rock phosphate which we use as a mineral supplement for the horses and other farm animals for the important reason that it has been deflourinated. Likewise, the collodial clay products would be the safest material for continued applications to the fields in order to prevent the buildup of fluoride, cadmium, and other heavy metals.

We hope the message came through loud and clear in The Great Phosphate Debate that there are other ways to improve phosphorus availability in the soil than trucking in rock materials. Animal manures are a good source of phosphorus, particularly the droppings from poultry. Mulch materials and high carbon cover crops can promote fungal activity, in this way releasing the stores of locked up phosphorus in the soil.

Even better, from the standpoint of long-term sustainability, would be including a grass/legume sod in the rotation to increase overall biological activity and to extract the phosphorus reserves through the sod’s extensive root system. Legume cover crops and buckwheat have also earned the reputation of being natural extractors of phosphorus. In fact, recent research at Geneva, NY by Thomas Bjorkman indicates that a fall cover crop of buckwheat can provide a good bit of available phosphorus early the next spring when the soil is too cold to release this nutrient through biological activity.

In retrospect, we fear we may have done readers a disservice by focussing The Great Phosphate Debate entirely on the different ideas about building up and balancing phosphorus levels in the soil, we should also have emphasized the dangers of oversupplying phosphorus. Indeed, one of the peculiar challenges facing market gardeners is that vegetable crops use relatively small quantities of nutrients, like phosphorus, but return little in the way of organic matter to the soil. The temptation for growers of high value produce is to replenish the organic matter in the soil by applying manure or compost to the fields year after year.

Over the long run, this practice can lead to excessively high levels of nutrients, which is not the best for the crops or the environment. Although livestock producers have received the brunt of the blame for phosphate pollution here in the Northeast, several states are proposing to make vegetable growers next in line for mandatory nutrient management plans due to their role in saturating the soil with nutrients.

To provide a down-to-earth perspective on this issue, we offer the following article by Brian Caldwell on how organic growers can increase organic matter without overloading the soil with nutrients. His carefully considered arguments, and creative solutions, come from years of experience as an organic grower and Cooperative Extension agent in Tioga County, New York.

We like to think that the bio-extensive approach to market gardening minimizes the risk of overloading the soil with nutrients because the fallow lands make it possible to grow lots of cover crops to maintain soil structure and organic matter rather than relying on large quantities of manure and compost. However, we are now seeing the consequences of ignoring our own farm philosophy when we resorted to off-farm inputs to correct a phosphate deficiency.

To reverse the slow-but-steady decline in phosphorus levels showing up in our long-term, PASA sponsored soil quality trial, we initiated the all-out phosphorus building campaign described in the Winter 2000 column. This included the application of 500 lbs/acre of black rock in the market garden for three years in a row during the mid-90’s, followed by cultural methods, like adding cow manure to the compost mix, and including buckwheat and double-cut rye in the rotation of cover crops.

The impact of this “campaign for phosphorus” did not show up on the soil test reports until recently — a delayed reaction? or cumulative effect? we do not know. One thing is for sure, that when we replicated Klaas and Mary-Howell Martens’ monthly soil testing trial last year, P levels in our fields were all very high! In fact, the levels of available phosphate have risen from a low of 100 lbs of P205/acre in 1993 to over 200 lbs/acre in the last two years as measured by Brookside Lab. While these high levels are still well below the saturation point causing phosphate pollution, we clearly added more rock phosphate than necessary.

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Spotlight On: Livestock

Horseshoeing Part 1C

Horseshoeing Part 1C

The horn capsule or hoof is nothing more than a very thick epidermis that protects the horse’s foot, just as a well fitting shoe protects the human foot. The hoof of a sound foot is so firmly united with the underlying pododerm that only an extraordinary force can separate them. The hoof is divided into three principal parts, which are solidly united in the healthy foot – namely, the wall, the sole, and the frog.

A Gathering of Comtois in France

A Gathering of Comtois in France

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I was soon planning for a stop in the town of Pontelier, the main hub in one corner of the country I had never been to and was bent on exploring: the Franche-Compte. As luck would have it, this region has its very own breed of draft horse, the Comtois. It was to an “exhibition” of this horse that I was heading, although thanks to my lousy French, I was not sure exactly what kind of “exhibition” I was heading to.

Fjordworks Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 3

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 3

By waking up so fully to the tasks at hand we are empowered to be more present, more available, and thus able to offer a compassionate and skillful response to the needs of our horses even as we ask them to accomplish heavy work on the farm. It is not up to the horses to trust us; it is up to us to prove ourselves worthy of their trust. What the horses can offer to us are new avenues to freedom and resilience, sustainability and hope.

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

In the practice of Zen sitting meditation, a special emphasis is placed on maintaining a relaxed but upright sitting posture, in which the vertical and horizontal axis of the body meet at a center point. Finding this core of gravity within can restore a sense of well-being and ease to the practitioner. This balanced seat of ease is not all that different from the state of relaxed concentration we need to achieve to effectively ride or drive horses.

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

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Our farm, here in the center of New York State, consists of 101 acres, about 90 in grass, the rest some woods and swamp. It is inhabited by forty-six jersey cows, twelve breeding ace heifers, one bull, and because it is calving season — an increasing number of calves. Also, four Belgian mares and a couple of buggy horses. Last, and possibly least — the farmer, farmer’s wife, and five grown children.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

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Over the last few years of making hay, the mowing, turning and making tripods has settled into a fairly comfortable pattern, but the process of getting it all together for the winter is still developing. In the beginning I did what everyone else around here does and got it baled, but one year I decided to try one small stack. The success of this first stack encouraged me to do more, and now most of my hay is stacked loose.

A Greenhorn Tries Draft Horses

A Greenhorn Tries Draft Horses

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We have tried a workhorse, and for our needs he has proven quite satisfactory as well as satisfying to use. Thus we feel it is possible for someone with little or no experience to learn to care for and use a horse or a team for farm and woods work, although, obviously, this is not a process to be undertaken lightly. One of the basic aims of the farm operation for us is self-sufficiency, and we thought that the horse would be more efficient than a tractor in achieving this aim.

Work Bridle Styles

Work Bridle Styles

Here are fourteen work bridle styles taken from a 1920’s era harness catalog. Regional variants came with different names and configurations, so much so that we have elected to identify these images by letter instead of name so you may reference these pictures directly when ordering harness or talking about repairs or fit concerns with trainers or harness makers. In one region some were know as pigeon wing and others referred to them as batwing or mule bridles.

Camel Power in Georgia

Camel Power in Georgia

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Last spring we got the bright idea to plow some corn with one of the camels, so we went to the shed and drug out the “Planet Jr. one camel cultivating plow”. My 86 year old Grandfather said “Son, don’t worry about thinning that corn, those camels are going to do a fine job of it, for you!” We plowed corn and I have some video to prove it, and as soon as I quit running over the corn and learned how to “drive the plow” we didn’t lose any more corn!

Cultivating Questions A Horsedrawn Guidance System

Cultivating Questions: A Horsedrawn Guidance System

Market gardening became so much more relaxing for us and the horses after developing a Horsedrawn Guidance System. Instead of constantly steering the horses while trying to lay out straight rows or cultivate the vegetables, we could put the team on autopilot and focus our whole attention on these precision tasks. The guidance system has been so effective that we have trusted visiting chefs to cultivate the lettuce we planned on harvesting for them a few weeks later.

Plans for Hog Houses

Plans for Hog Houses

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Missouri Sunlit Hog House: This is an east and west type of house lighted by windows in the south roof. A single stack ventilation system with distributed inlets provides ventilation. Pen partitions may be of wood or metal. This plan takes the place of the original Missouri sunlit house since many farmers had difficulty in building it.

American Milking Devons and the Flack Family Farm

American Milking Devons and the Flack Family Farm

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On a sunny early September day I met Doug Flack at his biodynamic and organic farm, just South of Enosburg Falls. Doug is an American Milking Devon breeder with some of the best uddered and well behaved animals I have seen in the breed. The animals are beautifully integrated into his small and diversified farm. His system of management seems to bring out the best in the animals and his enthusiasm for Devon cattle is contagious.

Ask A Teamster The Bit

Ask A Teamster: The Bit

I work at a farm that uses their team of Percherons to farm, give hayrides, spread manure, etc. One of the horses gets his tongue over the bit. I’ve been told he’s always done this since they had him. I have always thought: #1. You have very little control, and #2. It would hurt! The horse is very well behaved, does his work with his tongue waving in the air, and sometimes gets his tongue back in place, but at that point it’s too late. They use a snaffle bit. Any suggestions?

Portable Poultry

Portable Poultry

An important feature of the range shelter described in this circular is that it is portable. Two men by inserting 2x4s through the holes located just below the roost supports and next to the center uprights can easily pick up and move it from one location to another. Frequent moving of the shelter prevents excessive accumulation of droppings in its vicinity which are a menace to the health of the birds. Better use will be made by the birds of the natural green feed produced on the range if the houses are moved often.

Changing of Seasons

LittleField Notes: Changing of Seasons

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We are blessed who are active participants in the life of soil and weather, crops and critters, living a life grounded in seasonal change. This talk of human connection to land and season is not just the rambling romantic musing of an agrarian ideologue. It is rather the result of participating in the deeply vital vocation that is farming and knowing its fruits first hand.

Plant Poisoning in Horses & Cattle

Plant Poisoning in Horses & Cattle

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There are hundreds of plants that can be toxic to livestock. Some grow in specific regions while others are more widespread. Some are always a serious danger and others only under certain conditions. Poisoning of livestock depends on several factors, including palatability of the plant, stage of development, conditions in which they grew, moisture content of the plant and the part eaten.

Ask A Teamster Ten Common Wrecks With Driving Horses

Ask A Teamster: Ten Common Wrecks with Driving Horses

One of the things I’ve learned over time is that the truly great teamsters rarely – if ever – have upset horses, close calls, mishaps or wrecks, while the less meticulous horsemen often do. Even though it may take a few minutes longer, the master teamsters constantly follow a series of seemingly minute, endlessly detailed, but always wise safety tips. Here are 10 of them:

Work Horse Handbook

Work Horse Handbook

Horses are honest creatures. And, what I mean by honest is that a horse is almost always true to his motivations, his needs, his perceptions: if he wants to eat, if he needs water, if he perceives danger. He is incapable of temporarily setting aside or subverting his motivations to get to some distant goal. This is often mistaken as evidence for a lack of intelligence, a conclusion which says more of human nature than equine smarts. What it means for the horse is that he is almost never lazy, sneaky or deceptive. It is simply not in his nature.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT