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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Horseshoeing Part 5B

A Text-Book of Horseshoeing

Part 5B

by A. Lungwitz and John W. Adams Copyright 1897

CHAPTER VI.

HOOF NURTURE.

Hoof nurture comprises all those measures which are employed to keep hoofs healthy, elastic, and serviceable.

A. Care of Unshod Hoofs.

The care of the hoofs of colts is of special importance. Abundant exercise upon dry ground which is not too stony is most beneficial. Such exercise will cause the hoofs to wear gradually, and it will only be necessary from time to time to observe whether the wear is taking place uniformly, and if not, to correct the uneven wear with the rasp.

Horseshoeing Part 5B

If colts are reared in the stable, the horn continuing to grow down does not undergo sufficient wear, and changes in form of the hoof, and even permanent distortions of the bones of the foot gradually occur. The wall becomes too long and bends or sometimes separates from the sole and keraphyllous layer. Weak quarters bend (curl) inward and encroach upon the space occupied by the frog (contracted feet of colts). The toe becomes too long, and this gives rise to too steep a position of the pastern and causes an insecure and diffident gait; therefore the hoofs must be shortened from time to time. The incurved quarters should be removed with the hoof-knife, and the outer edge of the plantar border of the wall well rounded with the rasp. In the base-wide and base-narrow standing positions the outer and inner walls respectively become relatively long and induce the colt to assume a still more abnormal position. The young and pliant pasterns may thus become permanently twisted and distorted (see Figs. 183 and 184). In a hoof that is becoming awry, restoring to the wall its proper level with relation to the position of the limb will not only be invaluable in ultimately producing a good hoof, but will improve the faulty position of the limb. In exceptional cases, where the plantar border of some section of the wall gives evidence of too rapid wear, the application of a tip or of a half-shoe may be of benefit. Furthermore, we should attempt to secure greater cleanliness by frequently and thoroughly washing the hoofs and bedding with plenty of good straw.

Horseshoeing Part 5B

Too early shoeing of young horses is very injurious; it hinders the development of the hoofs, and, furthermore, young horses when shod are frequently seriously overworked and prematurely ruined. Moderate work in the fields does not injure young horses, but for such service they do not require shoes.

The unshod hoofs of older horses should be periodically rounded with a rasp and the length of the walls regulated when, by reason of a lack of exercise, proper wear has not taken place.

B. Care of Shod Hoofs.

Shod hoofs are exposed to many more injuries than are unshod hoofs, because shoeing itself, although absolutely necessary to render horses continuously serviceable upon hard street, is injurious to the hoof, since it to a greater or less extent prevents the physiological movements of the different parts of the foot, interferes with the circulation of the blood in the foot, slows the growth of the horn, and brings about a gradual shrinking of the entire hoof.

In addition, there are the injurious consequences of stabulation. These are prevention of free movement, uncleanliness due to bad floors and filthy bedding, – as, for example, peat moss and soiled straw, – and dryness.

Continuous standing always contributes to contraction of the hoofs, and this evil is greatly favored by dryness, which more particularly affects the front hoofs. The hind hoofs receive sufficient moisture from the animal’s manure. Poor floors, particularly those that are uneven, tire the limbs. Accumulation of manure and the careless use of stationary sole-pads induce thrush of the frog.

The object of hoof nurture is to lessen or entirely remove all these injurious consequences of shoeing and stabulation. It comprises, therefore, not only the proper shortening of the hoofs every five to six weeks, but careful attention to cleanliness and moisture. Both are insured by dry straw and daily picking out and washing the hoofs. Such measures will prevent thrush in the hind feet. If front hoofs are washed once a day, sufficient moisture will penetrate the horn to give it that degree of suppleness (elasticity) which is possessed by an unshod hoof, and which contributes to a proper expansion of the hoof when the body-weight is placed upon it. In order to prevent a hoof from drying out, the entire hoof should receive a thorough application of an oil or ointment (hoof-salve). The object of greasing the horn is to prevent evaporation of the moisture that has penetrated the horn. Specially compounded hoof-salves are not necessary. Melted horsegrease, pork-fat, or any other fat that is not rancid is sufficient. Cosmoline is an excellent hoof-salve.

Abundant but not excessive exercise is more necessary than anything else to the preservation of the health of the hoof. It aids the circulation of blood within the foot, and, therefore, the growth of the horn. Horses which perform hard, regular work have, as a rule, better hoofs than those which stand the greater part of the time in the stable. Poulticing hoofs with clay, bran, linseed-meal, or white-rock, or standing them in water is unnecessary if they have had proper care, but will sometimes be of benefit when the hoofs have been neglected, and especially so for front hoofs. The latter are more exposed to drying influences, and the shoes prevent the moistening process by keeping the hoofs partially or completely removed from contact with the earth. Oiling alone is not sufficient to soften horn, but must always be preceded by permeation of the horn with water. Oiling without first cleansing the hoof is useless, because this soon produces a greasy crust underneath which the horn is crisp and brittle.

The surest sign of cleanliness of a hoof is the appearance of the natural color of the horn, the latter appearing translucent even after the hoof-ointment has been applied; therefore, blackened hoof-ointments should not be used. When hoofs are exposed to too much moisture (muddy roads, melting snow, etc.) an addition of wax or common yellow rosin to the hoof-ointment is recommended to prevent too great softening of the horn. No hoof-ointment has any direct influence upon the growth of the horn.

Inasmuch as it is a fact that the very best shoeing injures the hoof, it is advisable to allow horses to go barefoot whenever it is possible. This applies especially to horses that from any cause are thrown out of service, presupposing, of course, that the nature of the hoofs will allow them to go barefoot.

Spotlight On: Crops & Soil

Raised Bed Gardening

Raised Bed Gardening

by:
from issue:

Raised beds may not be right for everyone, and our way is not the only way. I have seen raised beds made from rows of 5’ diameter kiddy pools, and heard of a fellow who collected junk refrigerators from the dump and lined them up on their backs into a rainbow of colored enameled steel raised beds. Even rows of five-gallon pails filled with plants count as raised beds in my estimation. Do it any way you care to, but do it if it’s right for you.

Cultivating Questions

Cultivating Questions: Follow-Up On Phosphorus

We like to think that the bio-extensive approach to market gardening minimizes the risk of overloading the soil with nutrients because the fallow lands make it possible to grow lots of cover crops to maintain soil structure and organic matter rather than relying on large quantities of manure and compost. However, we are now seeing the consequences of ignoring our own farm philosophy when we resorted to off-farm inputs to correct a phosphate deficiency.

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate Part 2

Cultivating Questions: Winterkilled Cover Crops For A Mild Climate Part 2

Finding just the right cover crop-tillage combination for crops planted the last half of June has always been a real challenge in our location. While surface-tilling mature rye and vetch in May works well for fall crops established in July and August, this cover crop-tillage combo does not allow enough time for decomposition and moisture accumulation for end-of-June plantings.

Starting Seeds

From Dusty Shelves: A WWII era article from Farming For Security

An Introduction To Farm Woodlands

The farm woodland is that portion of the farm which either never was cleared for tillage or pasture, or was later given back to woods growth. Thus it occupies land that never was considered suitable, or later proved unsuitable, for farm enterprises.

Beautiful Grasses

What follow are a series of magnificent hundred-year old botanist’s watercolors depicting several useful grass varieties. Artworks such as this are found on the pages of Small Farmer’s Journal quite regularly and may be part of the reason that the small farm world considers this unusual magazine to be one of the world’s periodical gold standards.

Cultivating Questions

Cultivating Questions: Concerning the Bioextensive Market Garden

One of our goals when we first started farming here was to develop the farm as a self-contained nutrient system. Unlike the almost complete recycling of nutrients which can take place on a livestock operation, we are always amazed – even a little disturbed – to see how many tons of fertility and organic matter leave the market garden each year with so little returned to the good earth.

On-Farm Meat Processing

The demand for fresh, local meat products – with no taint of industrial process – is absolutely staggering.

Prairie Grass A Jewel Among Kernels

Prairie Grass: A Jewel Among Kernels

by:
from issue:

Years ago, my brother advised against plowing the patch of prairie on the back forty of our Hubbard, Iowa farm. “Some day,” he predicted, “that prairie will be as valuable as the rest of the 40 acres. We know how to grow corn; but that prairie was seeded by the last glacier.” Left untilled by generations of my family, the troublesome treasure has now become a jewel among a cluster of conventional crops on the farm.

What We've Learned From Compost

What We’ve Learned From Compost

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from issue:

Our compost piles will age for at least a year before being added to the garden. We have learned that the slow aging is more beneficial to the decomposition process as well as not losing nearly as much nitrogen to off-gassing as happens with the hot and fast methods. Another benefit is the decomposition is much more thorough, destroying weed seeds, pathogens and any unwanted chemicals much better in a slower composting setup.

Mullein Indigenous Friend to All

Mullein: Indigenous Friend to All

by:
from issue:

Mullein is a hardy native, soft and sturdy requiring no extra effort to thrive on your part. Whether you care to make your own medicines or not, consider mullein’s value to bees, bumblebees, butterflies, moths, dragonflies, who are needing nectar and nourishment that is toxin free and safe to consume. In this case, all you have to do is… nothing. What could be simpler?

Jimmy Red Corn

Jimmy Red Corn

by:
from issue:

Chewning loves to save seeds — he has revived nearly extinct corns, beans, heirloom radishes, watermelons and field peas. He rescued Jimmy Red as well, growing it and saving kernels each year, increasing the seed stock. Little did he know that soon it would burst on the restaurant scene as a prized heirloom cultivar that makes unforgettable red-flecked grits and a rich, smooth whiskey with honey-nut undertones.

How to Grow an Acre of Potatoes

How to Grow an Acre of Potatoes

by:
from issue:

Heretofore potato production in this country has been conducted along extensive rather than intensive lines. In other words, we have been satisfied to plant twice as many acres as should have been necessary to produce a sufficient quantity of potatoes for our food requirements. Present economic conditions compel the grower to consider more seriously the desirability of reducing the cost of production by increasing the yield per acre.

Carrots and Beets The Roots of Our Garden

Carrots & Beets – The Roots of Our Garden

by:
from issue:

Carrots and beets are some of the vegetables that are easy to kill with kindness. They’re little gluttons for space and nutrients, and must be handled with an iron fist to make them grow straight and strong. Give the buggers no slack at all! Your motto should be – “If in doubt, yank it out!” I pinch out a finger full (maybe 3/4” wide) and skip a finger width. Pinch and skip, pinch and skip, working with existing gaps and rooting out particularly thick clumps.

Cultivating Questions: Alternative Tillage & Inter-Seeding Techniques

Our intention is not to advocate the oddball living mulches we use with this single row inter-seeding system, but just to show how it is possible to utilize the between-row areas to improve insect habitat, reduce erosion, conserve moisture, fix some nitrogen, and grow a good bit of extra organic matter. If nothing else, experimenting with these alternative practices continues to keep farming exciting as we begin our twentieth season of bio-extensive market gardening.

Peach

Peach

by:
from issue:

The Peach is a showy tree when in bloom. There are double-flowered varieties, which are as handsome as the dwarf flowering almond, and they are more showy because of the greater size of the tree. The flowers of the Peach are naturally variable in both size and color. Peach-growers are aware that there are small-flowered and large-flowered varieties. The character of the flower is as characteristic of the variety as size or color of fruit is.

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

We were inspired to try no-tilling vegetables into cover crops after attending the Groffs’ field day in 1996. No-tilling warm season vegetables has proved problematic at our site due to the mulch of cover crop residues keeping the soil too cool and attracting slugs. We thought that no-tilling garlic into this cover crop of oats and Canadian field peas might be the ticket as garlic seems to appreciate being mulched.

Propagation by Means of Budding and Grafting

Propagation by Means of Budding and Grafting Part 1

by:
from issue:

There are three general divisions or kinds of graftage, between which, however, there are no decisive lines of separation: 1. Bud-grafting, or budding, in which a single bud is inserted under the bark on the surface of the wood of the stock. 2. Cion-grafting, or grafting proper, in which a detached twig, bearing one or more buds, is inserted into or on the stock. 3. Inarching, or grafting by approach, in which the cion remains attached to the parent plant until union takes place.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT