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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PST

Icelandic Sheep
Icelandic Sheep

On pasture.

Icelandic Sheep

by Laurie Ball-Gisch of The Lavender Fleece, Midland, MI

bring the generations together – and keep an old farmer young

I believe that the passion to farm is a heritable genetic trait. I also believe it can skip generations and appear again out of nowhere. My own parents and grandparents were not farmers, but most of my great-grandparents and great great grands, going back through the generations, were farmers. But I did not grow up on a farm and there was nothing in my background to indicate that by the time I would be in my 40s I would become a full time shepherdess.

Icelandic Sheep

Willie (& friend).

My husband’s grandparents farmed and his father, Wilfred (Willie, a.k.a. “Papa”) Gisch has farmed his entire life. As a child he would be responsible for hitching up the horses in the early morning hours, as well as doing the other myriad chores found on any farm in the first quarter of the 1900s. As a young married man, Willie had saved enough money, after renting land for a number of years, to purchase his own 160 acres near Austin, Minnesota. For many years he farmed sheep, dairy cattle, chickens and hogs. He was also busy growing corn, soybeans and hay. He farmed the land there his entire adult life and in later years told us that he would never leave his land. After he formally “retired,” he let a friend keep some cattle on his prime pastures and he share-cropped the rest of the farm, which provided a modest, but steady income for him in retirement.

About Icelandic Sheep

Icelandic sheep are a triple use sheep: the meat is very mild, true gourmet quality; the fleece is extremely versatile, with its primitive dual coat; and the ewes can be very milky and are especially suited to farmstead cheese making. We have found our flock to be hardy and efficient grazers, excellent for farms that want to raise sheep on only pasture and hay. The sheep are quite beautiful, coming in a myriad of colors and patterns. They are friendly, curious and there is even a genetic strain of the breed that is highly intelligent – called leadersheep.

There is an appealing romance to the lore of the origin of the Icelandic sheep. Because they were brought to Iceland by the Vikings in 874-1100 AD and isolated there, the genetic makeup of Icelandic sheep is one of the purest left in the world today. The Icelandic sheep is of the North European Short Tail Race of sheep, related to the Finnsheep, Romanovs, Shetland, Norwegian, Spelsau and the Gotland sheep.

Because of the harsh conditions in Iceland, the breed long ago developed very efficient rumens. In fact they can gain too much weight when exposed to a management style that uses heavy graining. Lambs grow quickly, and often reach slaughter weight right off of pasture. Icelandic sheep are a medium size sheep, making them easy to handle. Another bonus to having Icelandic sheep is that their tails are naturally short so there is no need to dock tails. Icelandics generally will breed their first year as lambs; the small, vigorous lambs make lambing time easy for the shepherd. The ewes make excellent mothers, and often twin or even have triplets. Icelandic sheep can be horned, polled, or scurred. Their horns are non-threatening – indeed they make good handles for catching and hanging on. For more information about Icelandic sheep, please visit our website at www.lavenderfleece.com.

I came to sheep farming from a background in the arts – with a passion for spinning and weaving. When we were able to leave our house in town to buy our small farm, a former dairy operation, I had no idea that the desire to have a couple of fiber animals would turn into full time shepherding. I have been a graphic designer and an art educator in my past lives, but now I am a full-time shepherdess (as well as mother/farmer/gardener/businesswoman). I had discovered Icelandic sheep, and was completely enamored of their beauty, their hardiness and their intelligence (see side bar).

When we transitioned from our life in town to our new life on the farm, my father-in-law and I now had something more in common than just the children (my daughters – his granddaughters). He would come for 3-4 visits a year (we live in Michigan), staying always for two weeks at a time. He thought that my raising sheep was a great thing and we now had much to talk about and projects to give vision to. Although he wasn’t initially familiar with Icelandic sheep, he had raised Cheviot, Suffolk and Columbia sheep in his early farming years and was supportive of my choice.

Our farmstead had seven old dilapidated outbuildings. They became projects for Willie to work on each time he visited. Over a period of four years the old chicken coop became my studio and a greenhouse was added to the back (I also specialize in growing lavender). The old three-story dairy barn was taken down board by board and beam by beam and collapsed into a heap of lumber. By sheer will power and sweat, Willie and my husband rebuilt the barn into a safe and usable building to provide storage for hay and shelter for the sheep. All of the buildings eventually got new roofs and repairs, as well as a new coat of paint.

About the time that the major projects were done, including fencing, Willie teased me that after he turned 80 he wasn’t going to build me any more barns. So the summer of his 80th birthday, I challenged him with this question: “Do you think you can build me an 8-sided aviary for some peafowl?” He said “Draw me a picture of it and I can build it.” Sure enough by the next day he had measured off the space and gone to get lumber. The summer that Willie had his 81st birthday followed a hard winter for him. His best friend back in Minnesota gave up on farming due to ill health and sold his place, moving into a small house in town. With most of his farming comrades dead or facing changing lifestyles, Willie was becoming more and more isolated. Ending his visits here to Michigan to see his only family (my husband and I and our three daughters) were more difficult for all of us. We were acutely aware of the passage of time and the time in between visits seemed too long. Willie was still driving the 13 hour trip by himself, making it in two days each time. We had asked him for many years to consider moving to Michigan to be near us, even inviting him to live here in our home. But his many years of independence and living alone were not something that he was willing to give up.

That same summer a small house with some acreage came on the market just across the road from our farm. By coincidence, the realtor was holding an “open house” on the weekend before Willie was to head home from his summer visit. I suggested that we should go to the open house to check out the place and teasingly said “Wouldn’t it be great if you could be our neighbor?” We headed over, went in the front door and were greeted by the realtor who handed us the fact sheets. Uninterested in the papers, or the house, Willie and my husband headed straight through the house and out the back door. They walked directly to the old run-down outbuildings, which were overgrown with weeds and briars, and then proceeded to walk the property line. When they came back into the house, Willie surprised us all when he announced “Let’s make an offer.” For my husband and my children, it was a dream come true – to have “Papa” living here in Michigan – and better yet, to be our neighbor! By October, Willie had moved into his new house and within the first week he had already fenced the first acre of land and started to rebuild the outbuildings readying them for sheep. We are grateful that we did not have to sell the acreage in Minnesota and the land there can still generate an income for Willie, even though he lives here now.

We initially took him over a small breeding group of Icelandic sheep and after breeding season, he now houses 6 rams in one area and 16 ewes in another area. He was busy all winter building lambing pens, feeders and fencing in more land when the weather permitted. His first lambs are due around March 28th and he and I are getting his supplies ready.

Icelandic Sheep

Farm view, September 2004.

I am enjoying learning some of the “old time” remedies that Willie used back in the 1940s and 1950s when he raised sheep. When we were talking about bottle lambs (which I try to avoid at all costs) he said to me “Well, you take some kerosene and rub it on the nose of the ewe and on the lamb. It will take away her sense of smell and she’ll accept her lamb back.” I think he is secretly hoping there will be some bottle lambs this year; I think I’m going to have to make sure he doesn’t “steal” one of the lambs himself!

His secret “ingredient” for growing out the sheep is just plain old oats. I don’t grain my flock, but the lucky sheep who are at Willie’s farm are getting spoiled by a little handful of oats every morning. He is a very astute observer of animals, with an incredibly soft heart. As he says himself, he hates to see any animal suffer for any reason. He recently came over and said “I think that black buck is blind.” I questioned him more about why he thought so and when I had time to go over and observe the ram closer, we noted that the one eye was very swollen, almost looking like it was coming out of the socket and indeed, the ram was not able to see. Because of the nature of the swollen eye, it looked like he had been hit in the face, so we decided to treat him accordingly (there were no signs of pinkeye). The next morning Willie reported that the ram’s eye was not protruding as much and that he now flinched and turned away when Willie put his hand in front of his face. He was no longer blind.

Icelandic Sheep

It’s been over 50 years since Willie had sheep of his own. He retired from farming about 10 years ago, selling off his equipment and cattle. But now, appproaching his 82nd year, he is once again a shepherd. In addition to the sheep, he also has two guard llamas, two Icelandic sheep dogs and a flock of chickens. On the weekends our daughters (ages 6 and 7) like to have “sleep overs” at Papa’s house. Their morning routine consists of Papa making them bacon and eggs and then they all head outside to do the chores. The children feed the llamas out of their hands and enjoy helping Papa take care of the chickens and the sheep.

I never dreamed when I started my farm flock that I would one day have a full time partner in shepherding. While my husband is extremely supportive and helpful, he does work full-time (as a chemist). Now with “Papa” Willie as my neighbor, I have somebody nearby all the time to consult with, to share the ups and downs, the tears and the laughter over the antics of our sheep and our children, as they all interact together. Additionally, having Papa so close allows us some freedom to leave the farm occasionally because we have a very trusted and faithful shepherd to call upon. I feel like I have come full circle – to my own farming heritage – while building a lifestyle for my family that is connected to the land and to animals.

Icelandic Sheep

Spotted lamb.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Ask A Teamster Perfect Hitching Tension

Ask A Teamster: Perfect Hitching Tension

In my experience, determining how tight, or loose, to hook the traces when hitching a team can be a bit challenging for beginners. This is because a number of interdependent dynamics and variables between the pulling system and the holdback system must be considered, and because it’s ultimately a judgment call rather than a simple measurement or clear cut rule.

A Short History of the Horse-Drawn Mower

A Short History of the Horse-Drawn Mower

Book Excerpt: The enclosed gear, late model John Deere, Case, Oliver, David Bradley, and McCormick Deering International mowers I (we) are so fond of had a zenith of popular manufacture and use that lasted just short of 25 years. Millions of farmers with millions of mowers, built to have a serviceable life of 100 plus years, all pushed into the fence rows. I say, it was far too short of a period.

Shoeing Stocks

An article from the out-of-print Winter 1982 Issue of SFJ.

Barn Door Plans

Barn Door Plans

Good barn doors, ones that will last a lifetime of opening, sliding and swinging in the wind, require careful design and construction. In 1946 the Starline Co., a barn building firm from the midwestern US, compiled a book of barn plans. These two diagrams were in that book and presented excellent information.

The Horsedrawn Mower Book

Removing the Wheels from a McCormick Deering No. 9 Mower

How to remove the wheels of a No. 9 McCormick Deering Mower, an excerpt from The Horsedrawn Mower Book.

Portable A-Frame

Portable A-Frame

by:
from issue:

These portable A-frames can be used for lots of lifting projects. Decades ago, when I was horselogging on the coast I used something similar to this to load my short logger truck. Great homemade tool.

Build Your Own Butter Churn

Build Your Own Butter Churn

by:
from issue:

Fresh butter melting on hot homemade bread… Isn’t that the homesteader’s dream? A cheap two-gallon stock pot from the local chain store got me started in churn building. It was thin stainless steel and cost less than ten bucks. I carted it home wondering what I might find in my junk pile to run the thing. I found an old squirrel cage fan and pulled the little motor to test it. I figure that if it could turn a six-inch fan, it could turn a two-inch impeller.

John Deere Corn Binder

John Deere Corn Binder

from issue:

The John Deere Corn Binder is set up as illustrated in the following pages. The darkened portions of the progressive illustrations show clearly the parts to be assembled and attached in proper order. Where the instructions or the connecting points are numbered, follow closely the order in which they are numbered and lettered. Arrows are also used to point out important adjustments or parts that need special attention in setting up.

McCormick-Deering Potato Digger

McCormick-Deering Potato Digger

from issue:

McCormick Deering (eventually International Harvestor) made what many believe to be one of the outstanding potato digger models. This post features the text and illustrations from the original manufacturer’s setup and operation literature, handed to the new owners upon purchase. This implement, pulled by two horses or a small suitable tractor, dug up the taters and conveyed them up an inclined, rattling chain which shook off most of the dirt and laid the crop on top of the ground for collection

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

by: ,
from issue:

It is now possible to purchase a make of machine to suit almost any condition if the money is available. There is no doubt that eventually they will be quite generally used. However, the dry farmers are at present hard pressed financially and in many instances the purchase of very much machinery is out of the question. For the man of small means or limited acreage, a homemade implement may be utilized at least temporarily.

Barbed Wire History and Varieties

Book Excerpt: The invention of barb wire was the most important event in the solution of the fence problem. The question of providing fencing material had become serious, even in the timbered portions of the country, while the great prairie region was almost wholly without resource, save the slow and expensive process of hedging. At this juncture came barb wire, which was at once seen to make a cheap, effective, and durable fence, rapidly built and easily moved.

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

by:
from issue:

One of the challenges I constantly face using draft ponies is finding appropriately sized equipment. Mya is a Shetland-Welsh cross, standing at 11.2 hands. Most manure spreaders are big and heavy and require a team of horses. I needed something small and light and preferably wheeled to minimize impact to the land. My husband and I looked around our budding small farm for something light, wheeled, cheap, and available, and we quickly noticed our Vermont-style garden cart.

Pferdestarke

German Version of Horse Progress Days: Pferdestark

by:
from issue:

There is a rather neat phrase in German – ‘wenn schon, denn schon’ – which literally translates as ‘enough already, then already;’ but what it actually means is ‘if a something is worth doing, it is worth doing well. That would be a fitting description of Pferdestark, the German version of Horse Progress Days. For sheer variety of different breeds of draught horses, regional and national harness styles, or for that matter, languages or hats, it would be hard to beat Pferdestark.

Disc Harrow Requirements

Disc Harrow Requirements

by:
from issue:

One of the most important requirements is disc blade concavity, that is, correct concavity. Further along we set forth the purposes of disc concavity. We feel it is important enough to devote the extra time and words in a discussion of the subject, because seldom is disc concavity talked about, and very few know that there is difference enough to cause good and bad work.

Ask A Teamster Tongue Length

Ask A Teamster: Tongue Length

My forecart pole is set up for draft horses. My husband thinks we should cut the pole off to permanently make it fit better to these smaller horses. What would be your opinion? Like your husband, my preference would be a shorter tongue for a small team like your Fjords. The dynamics and efficiency of draft are better if we have our horse(s) close to the load. A shorter tongue will also reduce the overall length of your outfit, thereby giving you better maneuverability and turning dynamics.

Spring Tooth Cultivator Equi Idea Canadese

Spring Tooth Cultivator EQUI IDEA Canadese

Based and inspired by old small french-made cultivators called “Canadien”, the modern version of the Italian “Canadese” revives all the characteristics of this very popular tool amongst smallholders of the bygone times. The Canadese particularly suits, with its light weight and handy construction, small gardens or vegetable fields, especially in hilly or terraced landscapes, where the area for maneuvering at the headlands is limited, requiring that the implement has to be moved often by hand.

Barn Raising

Barn Raising

by:
from issue:

Here it was like a beehive with too many fuzzy cheeked teen-agers who couldn’t possibly be experienced enough to be of much help. But work was being accomplished; bents, end walls and partitions were being assembled like magic and raised into place with well-coordinated, effortless ease and precision. No tempers were flaring, no egomaniacs were trying to steal the show, and there was not the usual ten percent doing ninety percent of the work.

Fencing for Horses

Fencing for Horses

by:
from issue:

The first wire we tried was a small gauge steel wire which was not terribly satisfactory with horses. Half the time they wouldn’t see it and would charge on through. And the other half of the time they would remember getting shocked by something they hadn’t seen there and would refuse to come through when we were standing there with gate wide open. We realized that visibility was an important consideration when working with horses.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT