SFJ

Facebook  YouTube

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

LittleField Notes Hay

LittleField Notes Hay

LittleField Notes

by Ryan Foxley of Arlington, WA
photos by Joe D. Finnerty and Laura Littlefield

All was silent as before —
All silent save the dripping rain.
– H.W. Longfellow

July 7

As I sit and watch rain fall on new mown hay I can’t help but think of the experiences of farmers of yore. I think in particular of the Hjorts, George and Kristina, who100 years ago lived in the house where I now live and mowed hay in the same river-bottom fields I now mow. I wonder that an accurate weather forecast was not available to them, a fact almost unbelievable to a culture grown accustomed to computer generated weather models, satellite images, 24-hour TV weather channels and hourly smart-phone updates.

Over the last couple of weeks I have almost obsessively checked the weather — waiting for five sun icons in a row to appear on the computer screen. That would be enough time early in the season to get a few acres of mixed meadow grass cured and stored in the haymow.

The 4th of July dawned sunny and beautiful and the next several days looked favorable. June tends to be gloomy, but July typically turns lovely in the Pacific Northwest and our farming forebears in this region made hay in that month. So I greased up the John Deere Big 4 and, in deference to tradition, celebrated the 4th with my family and friends and waited to mow until the 5th. As predicted the sun was shining and summer seemed to have finally arrived. We tedded the hay each day, aerating it with the old machine’s lifting and fluffing action, very nearly approximating a man working through the field with a pitchfork.

Incidentally, the term “ted” comes from the Old-English “tend.” Haying around here really does require a lot of tending. Grass simply won’t cure itself just laying there on the ground the way it does in arid climates. Despite the favorable forecasts and with only a 20% chance of rain called for, seemingly out of nowhere the clouds rolled in and the rain fell for two days.

Thinking of my forebears, I reasoned that George would also have cut his hay on the 5th. I imagined him, like me staring out the kitchen window at the pouring rain, coffee cup in hand shaking his head at his misfortune. Or would he? Perhaps he would have been more resigned than I? More accepting, more at peace with the unpredictable nature of the weather and the way his and his family’s life was bound up with its fickle disregard for human needs and desires. Would his lack of up-to-the-minute weather forecasts have affected his choice of tools and techniques?

LittleField Notes Hay

I know from the jaunty old photo of George’s sons Torvald and Conrad that they made haycocks here on the farm, so I imagine they must have just expected it to rain — cut when you can, but expect rain and hope the sheltering effects of a properly made hay cock will get you through. I, however, am addicted to the labor saving action of the loose hay loader and so don’t build haycocks. I’d like to think that our modern forecasting tools can let me do my haying at opportune times and thus avoid the work of building hay cocks and in turn hand loading them on the wagon.

July 8

After a day of rain the sun has returned and as I write this I can hear Joe out driving a Fjord team on the tedder, the machine clacking and clanging away, tending to the wet grass, which we still hope to turn into cured hay. Even when it is humming along that old machine sounds like a runaway and not infrequently makes my heart skip a beat. Rain is much more destructive to three or four day old cut hay than to one or two day old and I think this crop, with ample fluffing still has the potential to be surprisingly good considering the amount of rain that fell yesterday.

This evening I raked the hay into windrows with the side delivery rake. Inevitably when the rake picks, folds and flips the hay we find that there is always some on the bottom that is seemingly untouched by tedder or sun and looks as green as the day it was cut. The rake does a nice job of bringing this green hay to the top of the windrow for further curing.

The forecast does not look promising. Looks like we have two more days of dry weather before the rains return once again.

LittleField Notes Hay

July 11

After a couple of decent days I made the decision to hook up the hayloader and get some hay in the barn. It has cured nicely though in a perfect world I would wait one more day, as there are still a fair number of slugs in it. In the Northwest not only do we have multitudes of garden slugs that like to munch on crisp lettuces, but we also encounter slugs of another kind. A hay slug is a little green wad of hay tucked in with perfectly cured hay. A few are ok and in our loose hay system always dry down nicely in the barn. However, loading the hay this afternoon there were more of these hay slugs than I like to see so we will have to limit the amount of hay that goes into the loft. Loose hay fluffed nicely and not stacked too deeply will finish curing beautifully in the barn. Seeing the amount of green still in the field I know that I have more than I dare safely put in the barn.

July 12

With more rain forecast and inspired by the old picture of Thor and Conrad amongst the haycocks I decided if we were to save the three acres right around the house we had better go old-school and try making haycocks. I gathered all available help, distributed pitchforks and commenced making little haystacks out of the windrowed hay. With the hay virtually cured and little fear of heating, we made stacks as large as we reasonably could. We aimed to build a cock with good straight sides and a moisture shedding, rounded cap on top. The idea is to get as much of the crop as possible under a protective outer layer of sacrificial hay. The outer six or so inches will be wet and turn brown while the hay inside stays green and dry. The job went surprisingly quickly with the whole field cocked by noon. By four o’clock it was raining.

LittleField Notes Hay

July 15

The haycocks withstood two days of solid rain. This morning, reaching a hand into the stack, I was pleased to find the hay inside perfectly dry with a pleasant fresh odor. With rain once again forecast for tomorrow we decided to peel off the spoiled outer layer and load the preserved inner hay on the wagon and haul it to the barn. Unsure of how much rain a haycock can take before the inner layers start to moisten, and with such an uncertain forecast I decided to put the good hay in the barn while we had the opportunity. We peeled off the spoiled outer layer, evenly distributing it over the field stubble and hauled the good hay to the barn. Overall the haycock experiment was a big success. Had we left the hay in the windrow it would have undoubtedly spoiled beyond saving.

July 26

As I sit here typing up the rest of these notes, and with an SFJ deadline looming we are still waiting for the arrival of summer. We have not yet had more than three consecutive days without rain. The temperature has rarely exceeded 70. We have several tri-pods in the field attempting to cure green hay using techniques that peasants have used in extremely wet climates the world over. I will tell this tale in full in the next issue after it has finished unfolding. In the meantime I will be grateful at least that we are not dealing with the extreme heat that much of the country is facing.

LittleField Notes Hay

Humility

So is weather-knowledge power? Does having a computer with 24-hour forecasts make me a better farmer? Looking back on the last month I would answer with a resounding NO. Not only have the weather forecasters been wrong more than right, but also I find that I generally put too much stock in their predictions often making choices that prove costly.

Farming is about choices. Choices that at times feel like a Faustian bargain. If I mow too soon my efforts may be spoiled by rain. If I wait I may not have adequate curing time before it rains again. If I delay longer still, waiting for that perfect run of good weather, I run the risk of having nothing but rank, stemmy and overly mature hay with ever diminishing nutritional value.

Haying with horses either simplifies these choices or makes them more complicated depending through which lens one chooses to look. No doubt haying with horses takes more time: fewer acres cut in a day, fewer tons gathered to stack or mow in a single day. I view this as a way of spreading risk, a guarantee that I will never have all of my hay on the ground at the same time. If I have three or four acres of hay on the ground and lose it all- at the end of the day that is still only 3 or 4 acres, not 30 or 40. Of course the big tractor farmer will tell me that when he gets a good stretch of weather he can get all of his hay cut and cured at once. That is his advantage. I, of course, am a horse farmer — I don’t even own a PTO mower, or baler. I choose to see the side of the coin that tells me I may lose a little hay here and there as I go, but that I am better off not putting all my hay-eggs in one speedy tractor-basket. That is to say nothing of the value inherent in this slower way of working.

Farming never fails to dish up one lesson in humility after another. Despite having all the weather knowledge the information-age has to offer, farmers will still lose hay to the rain, apple blossoms to frost, winter wheat to drought… If we are slow to learn humility in Nature’s presence we can be sure that another lesson is never far off.

Spotlight On: How-To & Plans

Chicken

The Best Chicken Pie Ever

by:
from issue:

She has one more gift to give: Chicken Pie.

Multiple Hitching with One Set of Lines

Multiple Hitching with One Set of Lines

by:
from issue:

A great deal of interest has been shown the last several years in using multiple hitches in horse farming, especially in spring fieldwork. The question often asked is how to keep it simple and easy in driving and assembling the hitch as far as lines are concerned. We demonstrated our method at the Horse Progress Days at Mt. Hope, Ohio in 2003 and have been asked numerous times how we drove four, six and eight-horse hitches using only two lines.

The Craft of the Wheelwright

The Craft of the Wheelwright

by:
from issue:

In these days of standardization and the extensive use of metal wheels you might think there is little call for the centuries old craft of wheelwrighting, but the many demands on the skills of Gus Kitson in Suffolk, England, show this to be very far from the truth. Despite many years experience of renovating all types of wagons and wheels even Gus can still be surprised by the types of items for which new or restored wooden wheels are required.

Farmrun On the Anatomy of Thrift

On the Anatomy of Thrift: Side Butchery

On the Anatomy of Thrift is an instructional series Farmrun created with Farmstead Meatsmith. Their principal intention is instruction in the matters of traditional pork processing. In a broader and more honest context, OAT is a deeply philosophical manifesto on the subject of eating animals.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

by:
from issue:

To select a Model 8, 10 or 10A for rebuilding, if you have a few to choose from – All New Idea spreaders have the raised words New Idea, Coldwater, Ohio on the bull gear. The No. 8 is being rebuilt in many areas due to the shortage of 10A’s and because they are still very popular. The 10A is the most recent of the spreaders and all three can be rebuilt. The 10 and 10A are the most popular for rebuilding as parts are available for putting these spreaders back into use.

Blacksmithing Secrets

Blacksmithing Secrets Part 1

by:
from issue:

Whether a farmer can afford a forge and anvil will depend upon the distance to a blacksmith shop, the amount of forging and other smithing work he needs to have done, and his ability as a mechanic. Although not every farmer can profitably own blacksmithing equipment, many farmers can. If a farmer cannot, he should remember that a great variety of repairs can be made with the use of only a few simple cold-metal working tools.

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

A Pony-Powered Garden Cart

by:
from issue:

One of the challenges I constantly face using draft ponies is finding appropriately sized equipment. Mya is a Shetland-Welsh cross, standing at 11.2 hands. Most manure spreaders are big and heavy and require a team of horses. I needed something small and light and preferably wheeled to minimize impact to the land. My husband and I looked around our budding small farm for something light, wheeled, cheap, and available, and we quickly noticed our Vermont-style garden cart.

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

by:
from issue:

The scoop has two steel sides about 5 feet apart sitting on steel runners made out of heavy 2 X 2 angle iron, there is a blade that is lowered and raised by use of a foot release which allows the weight of the blade to lower it and then lock in the down position and the forward motion of the horses to raise it and lock it in the up position. This is accomplished by a clever pivoting action where the tongue attaches to the snow scoop.

The Milk and Human Kindness Caring For The Pregnant Cow

The Milk and Human Kindness: Caring for the Pregnant Cow

by:
from issue:

Good cheese comes from happy milk and happy milk comes from contented cows. So for goodness sake, for the sake of goodness in our farming ways we need to keep contentment, happiness and harmony as primary principles of animal husbandry. The practical manifestations of our love and appreciation are what make a small farm. Above and beyond the significant requirements of housing, feed and water is the care of your cow’s emotional life, provide for her own fulfillment. Let her raise her calf!

Hand Plucking Poultry

Hand Plucking Poultry

by:
from issue:

I confess that I am cold-hearted and cheap. Though I love raising poultry, I hate spending time and money anywhere but on my little farm. So I process at home. If you are only raising a few birds for yourself, say 25 or 30 at a time, I recommend having a party and doing it all by hand. My journey backward from machines to hands started with a chance encounter with a Kenyan chicken grower visiting the United States. He finishes 15,000 broilers each year.

Work Horse Handbook

Grooming Work Horses

The serviceability of the work horse may be increased or decreased according to the care which is bestowed upon him. If he is groomed in a perfunctory fashion his efficiency as an animal motor is lessened. On the other hand, if he is well groomed he is snappier and fresher in appearance and is constantly up on the bit.

Retrofitting a Fireplace with a Woodstove

How to Retrofit a Fireplace with a Woodstove

Because the venting requirements for a wood stove are different than for a fireplace you need to retrofit a stainless steel chimney liner. A liner provides the draft necessary to ensure that the stove will operate safely and efficiently.

Lightning Protection for the Farm

Lightning Protection for the Farm

by:
from issue:

Lightning-protection systems for buildings give lightning ready-made lines of low resistance. They do this by providing unbroken bodies of material that have lower resistance than any other in the immediate neighborhood. A protection system routes lightning along a known, controlled course between the air and the moist earth. Well-installed and maintained, a lightning-protection system will route lightning with over 90-percent effectiveness.

Planting Calendar and Other Diagrams

From Dusty Shelves: A 1943 calendar for seeding your vegetable garden.

The Milk and Human Kindness Making Camembert

The Milk and Human Kindness: Making Camembert

by:
from issue:

Camembert is wonderful to make, even easy to make once the meaning of the steps is known and the rhythm established. Your exceptionally well fed, housed and loved home cow will make just the best and cleanest milk for this method. A perfect camembert is a marvelous marriage of flavor and texture. The ripening process is only a matter of a few weeks and when they’re ripe they’re ripe and do not keep long.

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

by:
from issue:

Making a pair of tongs was a milestone for a lot of blacksmiths. In times gone past a Journeyman Smith meant just that, a smith that went upon a journey to learn more skills before taking a masters test. When the smith appeared at the door of a prospective employer, he/she would be required to demonstrate their skills. A yard stick for this was to make a pair of tongs.

Basic Blacksmithing Techniques

Illustrated guide to basic blacksmithing techniques, an excerpt from Blacksmithing: Basics For The Homestead.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT