Small Farmer's Journal

or Subscribe
Living With Horses

Living With Horses

by Paul Schmit of Teinten, Belgium


The picture shown below has surely caught your eyes as you turned to this page of SFJ. You might have looked to the carthorse to determine its breed or you might have focused on the horsemen to find out the period this picture was taken. Take also the time to analyse the background of this photograph and you will see a rich countryside. A small farm building surrounded by a hilly forest, an orchard and a pasture full of various plants. Every living being here has found his place, from the people who cultivated the land to the small insect which flew from plant to plant to collect its nutrition.

Living With Horses

European farm works in the beginning of the 20th century.

The picture, which was taken before WW II, shows my grandpa François Lecomte, who was born in 1891 and who spent his life by farming and serving his neighbours as a blacksmith in a small village called “Téinten” located in the middle west of Luxembourg. He holds the jerk line of his carthorse harnessed to pull a two wheeled wagon, called a “Teimer”, which served many different purposes. This ranged from transporting the buckets full of fruits and big hay loads back home or the manure out of the stables. A single horse hitch was very common at this time as the farmers were very poor and beside the several cows and pigs they were only able to feed one horse.

If the work did require more draft power, a second horse had to be borrowed from a neighbour and hitched in front of the owner’s horse. In this case the traces of both horses were attached immediately to the shafts, however with a bad angle of draft, especially for the extra horse in front. When the farmers spoke about their horses, they mentioned the grey, the black or the bay horse. They didn’t worry too much about pedigrees and simply bought from the horse dealer what had an acceptable morphology and a clear head. The national stud book in Luxembourg, initially consisting only of the Ardennes draft horse breed, was established in 1921. Today it covers all kind of horses.

In the beginning of the last century, the vast majority of the 431 inhabitants of “Téinten” have been small farmers or worked as day labourers. Not every family, but also every house had its own name like “A Jounker”, “A Péiks” or “A Mäesch”. The house of my grandparents was called “A Schmatts” as “Schmatt” is the Luxembourg’s name for a blacksmith. The life was as hard as the soil in the Ardennes, the hilly countryside at the north-east of France. The south-east of Belgium and Luxembourg, was not of a great fertility. The local draft horse breed was a small horse and its conformation was far away from the show type horses of today, which stand high on their heavily feathered feet.

Today, the number of citizens in “Téinten” has nearly doubled, but there are only three farmers left who do their work on the fields full time. During the last century a lot of people left their rural milieu in order to find employment in the steel industry, which flourished at that time as some iron ore was found in the south of the country. The steel and finally also the slag, a by-product of the blast furnaces, which was used by the farmers as fertilizer on the fields, gave a certain prosperity to our nation.

Rural craftsmanship has changed into business. Not cultivating the land and harvesting what Mother Nature offers you does not guide the life of most of the people anymore, but making money is the name of the game. Finally, as you got some money, getting more money is what makes the challenge. If you leave your house at the morning by your air-conditioned car, closing the door of your garage by remote control, arriving after a more or less stressful drive to the underground car park of your company and being gently transported by an elevator to your office, you don’t have to worry about nature. It doesn’t matter if some rain helps grow the plants or if the sun helps to dry the hay on the fields.

Our villages and their surroundings are getting poorer from year to year. Not only by the modern agriculture itself, which becomes more and more an industrialized process, but also by the people who swarm out of the cities to the villages, where building land is still available at an acceptable price. The terrain around their small castles is kept clean by frequent acting motorized lawn mowers and large amounts of pesticides. There is definitely no place anymore for the elements shown in the background of picture #1.


We, my wife Cathy and I, still live in the village of my ancestors. Not at the farm “A Schmatts”, as this was given to my older brother. Our farm buildings are of recent time, while the main house is getting built, the barn and the stable are nearly finished. Even if everything is built with respect to the past and hosts a collection of old horse drawn farm machinery, we don’t look forward to opening a museum, nor do we think that we are one of the true references for doing farm jobs with horses in Europe. We both learned farming as a kid in the 70’s and the 80’s on different farms using tractor power. Today we try to put our farming methods in a more natural context. We don’t see our approach as a static one, with rules based on strong traditions, but we consequently adopt our methods.

An old beekeeper, who taught me in younger years some tricks about handling bees, always said to me “As a beekeeper you will rest an apprentice for all of your life”. What he meant with this statement was that each year differs from the year before. One year, nature offers a rich harvest of honey, the next one the cups get only half full. In one colony you can find bees with a smart character, while opening the next hive some other individuals greet you. What the beekeeper has finally to do is to learn to adapt himself to the different conditions that nature imposes on him.

This approach is, in my view, not only valuable for beekeeping, but it is true for all that you do in relation with the nature. You have to learn consequently and think about your actions over and over. By this article, which I consider as a small support to this magnificent publication, I simply try to share our experiences with you and would be very delighted to get some feedback, positive or negative.

There is obviously no better way for farming with respect to nature than doing it with horses. Our farm is run on organic principles and is using draft horses with modern farm machinery, mainly manufactured in USA but also some of our own development. We strictly rely on ground drive implements as using a donkey engine on horse drawn forecarts is not an option for us. (I may only see a reason behind this approach within the structures of life of the Amish subculture, but surely not in Western Europe.) However, to be honest, I must add that some of the work on our farm is done by contractors using tractor power, for example to run the hay baler. Moreover, even if we get some financial income, through participating in different programmes supported by our ministry of agriculture and the EU for extensive farming methods, we don’t farm to survive financially, but we do it simply as a vocation. Improving the quality of life, not only of ourselves, but maintaining the biodiversity around us is our goal.

Living With Horses

“Téinten” still a village as we like it.

Using draft horses allows us to harvest our own hay and it permits us to maintain our pastures, respecting the particularity of horses, which differs from what the farmers around us are thinking is right. Furthermore it gives me the opportunity to cultivate the land of my grandparents, which fulfills me with a great satisfaction. Every moment I hold the lines in my hands and pass with the horses through the fields, surrounded by our dog, the birds, the butterflies and all other of these small friends, is a moment of pleasure. Living with horses let us finally find a place away from the hectic scenery around us.

My main job is teaching coachbuilding and auto mechanics to young people at the high school. My wife, who spends some years in studying veterinarian medicine, nowadays works as an inspector of the tax authorities on a 75 % basis. The rest of her time she works for non profit organisations for wildlife and animal protection and finally also on the farm. The work on our farm is done around our daily work schedule, early in the morning and sometimes also late in the evening. Please consider us both as bit players in this article. We will avoid exposing ourselves too much and will let the horses play the main role.


Our farm hosts at this time six horses. Three Ardennes draft horses, ten, nine and six years old, which are mainly used for farm work and occasionally for carriage driving if time permits, which is regretfully not very often, maybe twice a year. The other three equines are saddle horses, which are a 21 years old crossbreed from Luxembourg, which is now in retirement and two purebred Arabians, which are bred in Belgium. The main riding horse is 11 years and the youngster in the herd is 2 years and is getting taught the basics.

Our Ardennes are coming originally from France. Even this breed has also its origins in Luxembourg, we are choosing our horses from some breeders in the north-east of France, this for these different reasons. The first one is that in Luxembourg the breeding of Ardennes is done almost exclusively for the slaughterhouse. At the only breed show, which is usually held at the first weekend in July in “Ettelbruck”, the horses are shown among the Charolais and Limousin cattles. Most of the breeders act more like wild animal trainers than like horsemen. The only positive aspect I can see in this scenery is the fact that is now forbidden to cut off the horse’s tails. It was very common, for better showing the heavily cruppers as they claim, to do not let a single piece of bone nor some hairs on the horses back part, and thus totally deprive the animals of their natural protection against the midges.

or Subscribe to read the rest of this article. is a live, ever-changing subscription website. To gain access to all the content on this site, subscribe for just $5 per month. If you are not completely satisfied, cancel at any time. Here at your own convenience you can access past articles from Small Farmer's Journal's first forty years and all of the brand new content of new issues. You will also find posts of complete equipment manuals, a wide assortment of valuable ads, a vibrant events calendar, and up to the minute small farm news bulletins. The site features weather forecasts for your own area, moon phase calendaring for farm decisions, recipes, and loads of miscellaneous information.

Spotlight On: Book Reviews

Barbed Wire History and Varieties

Book Excerpt: The invention of barb wire was the most important event in the solution of the fence problem. The question of providing fencing material had become serious, even in the timbered portions of the country, while the great prairie region was almost wholly without resource, save the slow and expensive process of hedging. At this juncture came barb wire, which was at once seen to make a cheap, effective, and durable fence, rapidly built and easily moved.

Wheel Hoe

The Wheel Hoe: A Tool For Shallow Tillage

When we bought this little farm I soon realized I needed a wheel hoe. The size of the horse and tractor dictated space wasting wide rows in crop production and, to some degree, so does my two wheeled tractor.

McCormick-Deering No 7 Mower Manual in English & French

McCormick-Deering No. 7 Mower Manual in English & French

Instructions for Setting Up and Operating the McCORMICK-DEERING No. 7 VERTICAL LIFT TWO-HORSE MOWERS — Instructions pour le Montage et le Fonctionnement des FAUCHEUSES A DEUX CHEVAUX McCORMICK-DEERING No. 7 À RELEVAGE VERTICAL

Basic Blacksmithing Techniques

Illustrated guide to basic blacksmithing techniques, an excerpt from Blacksmithing: Basics For The Homestead.

Starting Your Farm

Starting Your Farm: Chapter 4

Assuming that you’ve found a farm you want to buy, next you’ll need to determine if you can buy it. If you have sold your property, and/or saved your money, and have the means to buy the farm you are sitting pretty. If you do not have the full price of a considered farm, in cash or any other form, you will likely have to look for financing.

Audels Gardeners and Growers Guide

How to Store Vegetables

Potatoes may be safely stored in bits on a well drained spot. Spread a layer of straw for the floor. Pile the potatoes in a long, rather than a round pile. Cover the pile with straw or hay a foot deep.

Haying With Horses

Haying With Horses

If the reader is considering the construction of a barn we encourage you to give more than passing thought to allowing the structure of the gable to be open enough to accommodate the hanging of a trolley track. It is difficult or impossible to retrofit a truss-built barn, which may have many supports crisscrossing the inside gable, to receive hay jags. At least allowing for the option in a new construction design will leave the option for loose hay systems in the future.

Work Horse Handbook

Work Horse Handbook

Horses are honest creatures. And, what I mean by honest is that a horse is almost always true to his motivations, his needs, his perceptions: if he wants to eat, if he needs water, if he perceives danger. He is incapable of temporarily setting aside or subverting his motivations to get to some distant goal. This is often mistaken as evidence for a lack of intelligence, a conclusion which says more of human nature than equine smarts. What it means for the horse is that he is almost never lazy, sneaky or deceptive. It is simply not in his nature.

Farmer Pirates & Dancing Cows

Farmer Pirates & Dancing Cows

From humor-filled stories of a life of farming to incisive examinations of food safety, from magical moments of the re-enchantment of agriculture to the benches we would use for the sharpening of our tools, Farmer Pirates & Dancing Cows offers a full meal of thought and reflection.

Horsedrawn Plows and Plowing

Setting Up A Walking Plow

Here is a peek into the pages of Horsedrawn Plows and Plowing, written by SFJ editor and publisher Lynn R. Miller.

Book Review Butchering

Two New Butchering Volumes

Danforth’s BUTCHERING is an unqualified MASTERPIECE! One which actually gives me hope for the furtherance of human kind and the ripening of good farming everywhere because, in no small part, of this young author’s sensitive comprehension of the modern disconnect with food, feeding ourselves, and farming.

Why Farm

Farming For Art’s Sake: Farming As An Artform

Farming as a vocation is more of a way of living than of making a living. Farming at its best is an Art, at its worst it is an industry. Farming can be an Art because it allows at every juncture for the farmer to create form from his or her vision.

Apples of North America

Freedom has been called the ugly duckling of disease-resistant apple varieties. But that shouldn’t detract from its many merits. These include the freedom from apple-scab infection for which it was named, a high rate of productivity, and an ability to serve as a good pollinator for its more attractive sibling, Liberty.

Art of Working Horses

Lynn Miller’s New Book: Art of Working Horses

Art of Working Horses, by Lynn R. Miller, follows on the heels of his other eight Work Horse Library titles. This book tells the inside story of how people today find success working horses and mules in harness, whether it be on farm fields, in the woods, or on the road. Over 500 photos and illustrations accompany an anecdote-rich text which makes a case for the future of true horsepower.

How To Dry Up A Doe Goat

How To Dry Up A Doe Goat

You are probably thinking why would I want to dry up a doe? If the plan is to rebreed the doe, then she will need time to rebuild her stamina. Milk production takes energy. Kid production takes energy, too. If the plan is to have a fresh goat in March, then toward the end of October start to dry her up. The first thing to do is cut back on her grain. Grain fuels milk production.


Driving Fence Posts By Hand

Where the soil is soft, loose, and free from stone, posts may be driven more easily and firmly than if set in holes dug for the purpose.

Storey's Guide to Keeping Honey Bees

Storey’s Guide To Keeping Honey Bees

It is well known that the value of pollination and its resultant seed set and fruit formation outweigh any provided by honey bee products like honey and beeswax.

Making Buttermilk

The Small-Scale Dairy

What kind of milk animal would best suit your needs? For barnyard matchmaking to be a success, you need to address several concerns.

Journal Guide