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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Marketable Cover Crops
Marketable Cover Crops

Marketable cover crop of turnips in late September. About 40% of the crop was harvested, first as turnip greens and then the roots, before turning under the middle of November.

Marketable Cover Crops

by Klaus Karbaumer, photos by LeAnn Karbaumer, both of Platte City, MO

Our small horse-powered farm of about seventeen acres is divided up into roughly two acres of crop land, eight acres of permanent pasture, and five acres of hayfield. The rest of the land includes a pond, the farmstead and barnyard. We are actually over-stocked with four big Belgians and one Haflinger as our workforce, but since we also do hayrides two teams are just fine. Besides, we value the manure which we collect by stabling the horses for about ten hours a day. We keep up to 200 hens for our free-range egg production.

On our two acres of growing areas we raise about 50 different varieties of vegetables and herbs each year. Our records for 2009 indicate we sold a total of 9,600 pounds of our produce while still keeping enough for ourselves. Our produce serves an average of 70 to 80 CSA members, passersby who come in from the road, restaurants, and occasionally a farmers’ market.

We obviously have to work our land intensively for that kind of production. Since we strictly adhere to natural production methods without any pesticides and fertilizers whatsoever, we try to observe principles of crop rotation, succession, and companion planting very carefully. For many years I have admired the work of Anne and Eric Nordell with their intricate rotation and fallow patterns. Their method of weeding the soil, not the plant is very intriguing. Unfortunately, due to different climate and soil conditions, following their example is not feasible for us.

Marketable Cover Crops

Mustard sown thickly suffocates everything and breaks up the soil nicely. This marketable cover crop was planted in August following the harvest of potatoes which were partly overgrown with grass. We give our CSA members recipes for the manifold uses of the mustard greens which should be cut when young and tender.

First, we do not have enough land suitable for vegetable production to use long periods of fallowing. Second, grass is our major weed challenge. Even relatively short fallow periods resulted in increased grass growth where I didn’t need it. Our summers here are very warm so occasional very heavy rain brought forth the grass quickly. The grass problem was aggravated by using large amounts of mulch, consisting of old hay, to rapidly improve the worn out soil during the first years on the farm. As a consequence, I prefer to keep crops in the ground all the time to shade out the grass.

Our cover crops have to provide the benefits of smothering weeds, improving soil structure, and replenishing organic matter. They also have to produce some income. For these purposes, we use turnips, mustard and lettuce within our plant successions. I broadcast these seeds thickly on areas where cover crops are necessary and let them do their work. Not all of the plants get harvested then, of course, as this would defeat the purpose. But enough will be taken for marketing so that money can be made while having the beneficial effect of the cover.

It is true that I use the brassica family vegetables quite often because they are so effective at suppressing weeds, fighting nematodes, and making the soil more friable. I try to let a year go by before I plant turnips, mustard, radishes, cabbage, etc… on the same spot. Sometimes the rotation is shorter and I have not experienced bad results. I think it is because of our rapid succession of different plants within one growing cycle.

Marketable Cover Crops

We sowed this mustard very early in April, sold a portion as greens in May, then cut down the remainder in June when it started blooming which kills it completely. We planted a later variety of tomatoes (next to stakes) directly into the dead mustard. As the succulent mustard decomposes quickly in our hot climate, we maintain the mulch around the tomatoes by adding vegetable thinnings and trimmings, such as turnip leaves and excess lettuce.

For example, a plant succession might look like this: spring lettuce, summer tomatoes, fall turnips and overwintering spinach. Or it could be spring radishes followed by summer carrots sown alongside green beans, then Asian greens in the fall.

By the way, I have green beans pretty much on every plot (staggered timing, of course). They are a wonderful help of replenishing the soil with nitrogen, plus they suffocate weeds effectively since I plant the rows densely.

Also, lettuce lasts longer in the fall and even in cold weather stays tender for quite some time when grown tightly. Throughout the year, I plow shallowly and allow for the appropriate time interval before new crops are planted.

The results of these practices can be seen in our increased yields, the soil becoming more and more friable, as can be experienced that plowing and/or disking is easier for the horses, and that I have fewer and fewer problems with grasses, which are my biggest enemy. Also, due to increased tilth I find it easier and easier to grow good carrots which were a major problem when I started. I am convinced that marketable cover crops have merit and that other farmers might benefit from them, too. But by no means do I want to suggest that the system is perfect. I am learning from mistakes every year.

Marketable Cover Crops

Fall plowing after the tomato harvest shows the beautiful tilth created by the marketable cover crop of mustard and mulch of vegetables.

Spotlight On: How-To & Plans

Building an Inexpensive Pole Barn

Building an Inexpensive Pole Barn

by:
from issue:

The inside of the barn can be partitioned into stalls of whatever size we need, using portable panels secured to the upright posts that support the roof. We have a lot of flexibility in use for this barn, making several large aisles or a number of smaller stalls. We can take the panels out or move them to the side for cleaning the barn with a tractor, or for using the barn the rest of the year for machinery.

The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

Cultivating Questions: The Woodfired Bottom-heated Greenhouse Bench

It took several incarnations to come up with a satisfactory design for the bottom heated greenhouse bench. In the final version we used two 55 gallon drums welded end-to-end for the firebox and a salvaged piece of 12” stainless steel chimney for the horizontal flue. We learned the hard way that a large firebox and flue are necessary to dissipate the intense heat into the surrounding air chamber and to minimize heat stress on these components.

Delivery Wagon Plans

Delivery Wagon Plans

from issue:

While the low down delivery wagon is an improvement, the objectionable features are increased. But with all those objections the low down wagons increase every year. Their convenience outweighs all other objections. They are handy for country delivery and are fitted up inside to suit either grocers, bakers, butchers or milk delivery, or a combination of the four.

Haying With Horses

Hitching Horses To A Mower

When hitching to the mower, first make sure it’s on level ground and out of gear. The cutter bar should be fastened up in the vertical or carrier position. This is for safety of all people in attendance during hitching.

New Idea Mower

New Idea Mower

from issue:

For proper operation the outer end of the cutter bar should lead the inner end when the machine is not in operation. After long use the cutter bar may lag back and if this happens it can be corrected by making adjustments on the cutter bar eccentric bushing as follows: First making sure that the pin and bolt in the hinge casting “A” Fig. 5 are tight and in good condition.

Forging Rings in the Farm Blacksmith Shop

Forging Rings in the Farm Blacksmith Shop

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from issue:

Fabricating steel rings is a common task in my small farm blacksmith shop. They are often used on tie-rings for my customer’s barns, chain latches on gates, neck yoke rings, etc. It’s simple enough to create a ring over the horn of the anvil or with the use of a bending fork, however, if you want to create multiple rings of the same diameter it’s worthwhile to build a hardy bending jig.

Basil Scarberrys Ground-Drive Forecart

Basil Scarberry’s Ground-Drive Forecart

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from issue:

I used an ’84 Chevrolet S-10 rear end to build my forecart, turn it over to get right rotation, used master cylinder off buggy and 2” Reese hitch, extend hitch out to use P.T.O. The cart is especially useful for tedding hay. However, its uses are virtually unlimited. We use it for hauling firewood on a trailer, for pulling a disc and peg tooth harrow, for hauling baled hay on an 8’ x 16’ hay wagon, and just for a jaunt about the farm and community.

Basic Blacksmithing Techniques

Illustrated guide to basic blacksmithing techniques, an excerpt from Blacksmithing: Basics For The Homestead.

Propagation by Means of Budding and Grafting

Propagation by Means of Budding and Grafting Part 1

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There are three general divisions or kinds of graftage, between which, however, there are no decisive lines of separation: 1. Bud-grafting, or budding, in which a single bud is inserted under the bark on the surface of the wood of the stock. 2. Cion-grafting, or grafting proper, in which a detached twig, bearing one or more buds, is inserted into or on the stock. 3. Inarching, or grafting by approach, in which the cion remains attached to the parent plant until union takes place.

Build Your Own Butter Churn

Build Your Own Butter Churn

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Fresh butter melting on hot homemade bread… Isn’t that the homesteader’s dream? A cheap two-gallon stock pot from the local chain store got me started in churn building. It was thin stainless steel and cost less than ten bucks. I carted it home wondering what I might find in my junk pile to run the thing. I found an old squirrel cage fan and pulled the little motor to test it. I figure that if it could turn a six-inch fan, it could turn a two-inch impeller.

Posts

Driving Fence Posts By Hand

Where the soil is soft, loose, and free from stone, posts may be driven more easily and firmly than if set in holes dug for the purpose.

"Work Horse Handbook, 2nd Edition" by Lynn Miller

Draft Collars and How To Size Them

It is difficult to accurately measure a horse’s neck without fitting. In other words, there are so many variables involved in the shape and size of a horse’s neck that the only accurate and easy way to size the neck is to use several collars and put them on one at a time until fitting is found.

Sack Sewing with Wayne Ryan

Sack Sewing with Wayne Ryan

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Watching Wayne’s sure hands it was easy for me to forget that this is a 91 year old man. There was strength, economy, elegance and thrift in his every stroke.

Multiple Hitching with One Set of Lines

Multiple Hitching with One Set of Lines

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A great deal of interest has been shown the last several years in using multiple hitches in horse farming, especially in spring fieldwork. The question often asked is how to keep it simple and easy in driving and assembling the hitch as far as lines are concerned. We demonstrated our method at the Horse Progress Days at Mt. Hope, Ohio in 2003 and have been asked numerous times how we drove four, six and eight-horse hitches using only two lines.

Starting Seeds

From Dusty Shelves: A WWII era article from Farming For Security

The Milk and Human Kindness Caring For The Pregnant Cow

The Milk and Human Kindness: Caring for the Pregnant Cow

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Good cheese comes from happy milk and happy milk comes from contented cows. So for goodness sake, for the sake of goodness in our farming ways we need to keep contentment, happiness and harmony as primary principles of animal husbandry. The practical manifestations of our love and appreciation are what make a small farm. Above and beyond the significant requirements of housing, feed and water is the care of your cow’s emotional life, provide for her own fulfillment. Let her raise her calf!

Blacksmithing Secrets

Blacksmithing Secrets Part 2

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One of the main advantages of having a forge in the farm shop is to be able to redress and make and temper tools like cold chisels, punches, screw drivers, picks, and wrecking bars. Tool steel for making cold chisels and punches and similar tools may be bought from a blacksmith or ordered through a hardware store; or it may be secured from parts of old machines, such as hay-rake teeth, pitchfork tines, and axles and drive shafts from old automobiles.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT