McCormick-Deering No. 62 Harvester-Thresher
We have the complete manual on this machine and it has excellent information throughout What you find here is but a sample. If enough people are in need of the entire manual we will consider reprinting it. We knew one mid-western farmer who had one of these units with its own Wisconsin engine for power. He then pulled it with four abreast and a forecart. SFJ
The following instructions are intended to aid the operator in making machine adjustments to meet various conditions.
Since the conditions encountered in the field are so varied that definite instructions would be of little value, the aim is to explain the effect of certain adjustments and leave it to the one making the adjustments to determine when they should be made. Determining the cause before attempting a remedy will simplify the task. Study the problem carefully before making any changes.
There are four principal units in the Harvester-Thresher: The Heading, Threshing, Separating and Cleaning Units. Each should be considered individually to determine where loss of efficiency may be present. Most operators make the too common mistake of attempting to make the machine more efficient by cylinder adjustments alone.
CHAFFER and SIEVE ADJUSTMENT
The chaffer should be open enough to allow loose grain to fall through and at the same time float weeds and chaff over onto the chaffer extension.
The openings in the adjustable chaffer extension should be wide enough to allow any unthreshed heads to fall through in the tailings trough and at the same time carry over weed stems, straw joints and other coarse material. The adjusting lever is located at the rear right hand corner of the extension.
The chaffer extension side brackets are slotted so that the extension can be raised or lowered indepenently of the chaffer.
The adjustable sieve should be set close enough to allow threshed grain only to pass through to the grain auger. White caps, straw joints and pieces of unthreshed heads should be floated over into the tailings trough. It should be remembered, however, that the finer the sieves in the shoe, the greater will be the amount of tailings which is apt to cause excessive cracking of the grain.
The sieve adjusting rods are conveniently located on the rear right side.
Four holes are provided in the front and rear ends of the shoe sides for each of the bolts that hold the shoe sieve in place. The shoe sieve can be raised or lowered at both ends as conditions may require.
Lowering the sieve too much at the rear end may result in too many tailings, thereby causing excessive cracking. The volume of tailings usually indicates what is happening in the machine. Be sure to check the amount of tailings being returned as well as the contents after making sieve and wind adjustments. A hand hole is provided in the tailings elevator down spout for that purpose.
If desired an additional sieve may also be used under the adjustable shoe sieve. Many operators use this arrangement for harvesting clovers and similar small seed crops. While a cleaner sample can sometimes be obtained, there is usually more seed lost over the chaffer extension and a heavier tailings will be carried because the wind blast will not be as effective on three sieves as it would be on only two. The wind blast being the medium of separation, the sieves serving only to support the mass of chaff and seed, it is very important to have sufficient wind blast to agitate the chaff and release the threshed seed. When a sieve is used in the shoe below the adjustable sieve and the crop being threshed breaks up, causing a heavy mass of chaff on the chaffer and shoe sieve, there may not be sufficient room between the sieves for thorough agitation of the chaff.
This is naturally more true of a heavy crop than a light one, so the crop being harvested and the condition of the crop will be the determining factor rather than to attempt to classify crops as those that can be best harvested using two sieves in the shoe and those that cannot.
The hinged door at the rear of the tailings conveyor trough is provided for easy access to the sieves for adjustment or replacement of sieves.
To remove the shoe sieve, open the tailings trough door, disconnect the sieve adjusting rod and remove the nuts and lockwashers from the four bolts holding the sieve to the shoe sides. Open the hand hole covers in the shoe sides and remove the bolts by reaching through the hand hole; then remove the sieve.
To remove the chaffer sieve, open the tailings trough door, disconnect the sieve adjusting rod and remove the brackets holding the rear end of the chaffer to the grain pan side rails. Remove the bolts holding the adjustable chaffer extension side sheets to the grain pan side rails. The chaffer may now be removed.
CRACKING GRAIN (Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, Etc.)
- Check cyclinder speed. If excessive, reduce to normal.
- Cyclinder and concave set too close. Raise a little at a time until cracking is reduced to a minimum with no unthreshed heads in the straw.
- Excessive grain in the tailings. Increase openings in adjustable sieve. Increase air blast.
- Too much chaff. Increase the air blast.
- Check cylinder speed. If there are no unthreshed heads in the straw and very few in the tailings, raise the cylinder a little. Broken up straw indicates either excessive cylinder speed or cylinder and concave set too close and results in overloading the chaffer and shoe sieve.
- Using a finishing sieve in the shoe, below the adjustable sieve, will often reduce effectiveness of the air blast on the adjustable sieves and cause excessive tailings.
EXCESSIVE AMOUNT of GREEN MATERIAL, LEAVES, JOINTS, WEED STEMS in the TAILINGS
- Green material, leaves, joints and weed stems which are too heavy to blow out must be floated out over the chaffer and extension as much as possible the first time they come over the chaffer. If allowed to fall into the tailings and be broken up, they will keep on going through the machine, getting smaller and more difficult to separate.
- If a large amount of green pieces are found in the tailings, lower the chaffer extension a little and close a little at a time until green material is floated over. Close chaffer a little but watch so that good grain is not floated out with the straw.
- In extreme cases it may be necessary to practically close the chaffer extension. This may result in some threshed seed being lost over the chaffer extension. This small loss is more desirable than having an excess of green material in the threshed seed since excessive green material in threshed seed causes heating and spoilage. The best solution for excess green material is to windrow the crop. When dry, it offers no problem.
- Cylinder speed may be too low or irregular, due to faulty or under-powered tractor. If the machine is driven from the power take-off and the travel speed of the tractor must be reduced frequently when passing through rough spots, washouts or soft spots, shift to lower gear. DO NOT USE THE THROTTLE TO SLOW DOWN THE TRACTOR.
- Clearance between cylinder and concave may be too great.
- Lower the cylinder a little at a time until straw is threshed clean. Do not lower more than necessary as the volume of tailings will be increased when set too close.
- If the concave channel bars and flat bars are badly worn or uneven, they may be reversed, thereby obtaining a new threshing edge.
VERY HEAVY CROP
- If the crop is extremely heavy, raise the feeder as much as possible to reduce the volume of straw to be handled.
- If the crop is down so that the volume of straw must be heavy, shift tractor to low speed to maintain constant engine speed and normal cylinder speed.
- Set the shoe sieve in the center holes and chaffer extension in center of slot. Adjust tail board to within 1/4” of chaffer extension.
- If the sieves are overloaded, increase the air blast.
- If the grain is floating out with the chaff, open the chaffer.
- Check the tailings. If too much loose grain is found, open the cleaning sieve. If too much chaff, close chaffer extension a little and increase the air blast.
- Reduce the air blast if grain is light and easily blown over.
- The chaffer should be fairly well closed, since a small amount of grain will easily fall through.
- Raise the chaffer extension as high as possible without getting too much chaff into the tailings.
- Be sure the tail board is adjusted as close to the chaffer extension as possible without rubbing.
LOSS of GRAIN
- If grain is being blown out under the chaffer extension, raise the tail board. Open cleaning sieve a little. Reduce air blast by closing wind regulators on end of cleaning fan.
- If grain is going over above the straw racks, lower the cylinder beater check flap. Excessive travel speed often causes loss of grain over the straw racks.
- If grain is going over the chaffer, increase the air blast and raise the chaffer extension. Open chaffer. Open chaffer extension.
When stationary threshers were the only threshing machines in use, the “thresherman” did nothing but lubricate, adjust and otherwise care for the thresher. He also directed the feeding of the machine when circumstances warranted or the crop was “tough” and hard threshing. You may recall that he insisted on feeding as evenly as possible at all times and, when threshing clover, grasses and other bulk crops, he insisted on feeding small bunches so the feed would be constant, though it required a great deal of extra work on the part of the men on the wagon or stack.
With the advent of the small Harvester-Thresher and the modern tractor, a new method of harvesting was introduced. Each owner of a Harvester-Thresher became a “thresherman”, and even though he harvests for a neighbor or two, besides harvesting his own crop, he spends only a very small part of the year being a “thresherman,” as a rule too small a part to become thoroughly familiar with either his machine or the principles of threshing. It is therefore essential that the operator of a Harvester-Thresher study the instruction book carefully. Merely reading a line or two on setting the machine for some particular crop, will not as a rule obtain very satisfactory results. There are a few fundamentals of threshing which must be understood.
- The crop must be in threshable condition.
- The machine must be adjusted to suit the particular crop being threshed.
- Constant speed of the cylinder, fan, straw rack and cleaning shoe is necessary. Driving too fast or attempting to crowd the machine will only result in lost time and lost grain. In heavy, hard-threshing crops, it will often effect a saving of both seed and time to reduce the width of cut. Separating and cleaning adjustments will be less effective when you crowd the cylinder, thereby preventing its doing a complete job of removing the seed from the straw.
- The cylinder and concave remove the seed from the seed pod or hull. Run the cylinder just fast enough and close enough to the concave to accomplish this. Running too fast or too close decreases the efficiency of the straw racks and cleaning shoe because more straw will be broken up into fine chaf which must be separated from the grain on the straw racks, chaffer and sieve.
- The straw racks shake the threshed grain, chaff and unthreshed pieces of heads out of the straw and pour this mixture of grain and chaff onto the grain pan at the front end of the chaffer and from there it moves onto the chaffer. Unless one of the following conditions is present there should be no appreciable amount of threshed grain passing out with the straw over the straw rack:
- (A) Machine is being over-fed by too fast ground level.
- (B) Cutting too low in tall grain.
- (C) A heavy growth has fallen down making it necessary to handle excessive straw.
- (D) Or when threshing from a windrow containing more than a regular width cut.
- (E) Tractor hitch too high or too low.
- (F) Cutting up steep hillsides.
- The chaffer supports the threshed grain, chaff and unthreshed heads until the air blast from the fan completes separation. The fan plays a very important part in this since the air blast must be of sufficient strength to raise the chaff on the chaffer and thus permit the threshed grain to fall through onto the sieve.
Here again the feeding of the machine is reflected in the job done. Irregular feeding causes the quantity of chaff and grain on the chaffer to vary. When the flow is light, threshed grain may be blown out with the chaff. When the flow is heavy, a great deal of chaff may fall through onto the sieve. Enough wind should be used to keep the chaff moving on the chaffer.
Chaffer should be open enough to prevent threshed grain from going out with the chaff but not open enough to permit straw and weed joints to fall onto the screen as they will then go into the tailings, back through the cylinder and on the return trip over the chaffer be even smaller and harder to keep out of the threshed grain.
When threshing such crops as beans, peas and vetch, the operator should keep the machine comparatively full at all times if the seeds are of a variety easily cracked. In light crops this can be accomplished by driving the tractor slightly faster, or if the crop is windrowed throw two windrows together with a Side- Delivery Rake. Light uneven feeding does not provide sufficient straw and chaff to cushion the seed and excess cracking may result.
Just the opposite will apply when threshing clovers, grasses, grain sorghums and other crops which as a rule tend to “load” the chaffer and sieve. Reducing the travel speed of the tractor or narrowing the width of cut will often materially increase the amount of seed being saved and at the same time make a cleaner sample possible.
When setting the machine, adjustments to begin harvesting a crop always start with the sieve in a level position unless specific instructions for the location are given under “HARVESTING INFORMATION” covering that particular crop.
1. ALFALFA – May be harvested as a standing crop, mowed and picked up from a swath or raked into windrows. A pickup attachment should be used to pick up the dry hay from the swath or windrow. Where high winds are prevalent the swath is preferred since the wind often rolls the windrows together. Harvesting as a standing crop is the least expensive method but weedy or unevenly ripened crops often make it desirable to cut and cure the crop before threshing.
Open chaffer about one-third, raise chaffer extension half-way up on height adjustment and open one-half. Open adjustable sieve one-fourth and place 1/10” round hole sieve below adjustable sieve. Many operators prefer to remove adjustable sieve and use only the 1/10” round hole sieve in the shoe. Instead of the 1/10” round hole sieve, some prefer the special, fine adjustable sieve 19773 K.
2. BARLEY – Set the chaffer one-half to two-thirds open with the chaffer extension raised two-thirds and open two-thirds. Open shoe sieve one-fourth unless barley is to be used for malting. Open one or two notches more for malting barley since it should not be bearded as closely as barley to be used for feed or seed purposes; it may often be necessary to reduce cylinder speed to around 1000 R.P.M. for malting barley so as to not “skin” the seed. Set wind control one-half open to start. Increase wind a notch a time until you are sure clear barley is being blown over; then close one notch. Due to the beards, more wind is required for separating the barley than a similar crop. As a rule more barley is carried over with the chaff due to lack of wind than is blown over by too much wind.
Two general classes of beans are threshed, the edible beans and the soy beans. The most common classes of edible beans are listed below. They vary in size and shape from the flat baby lima and large Great Northern to the small round pea bean. Some are easily threshed and crack easily; others are difficult to knock out of the pods and also crack easily. Some do not crack so easily. The common practice with all edible beans is to pull them and leave to dry in windrows. They are then picked up and threshed by the Harvester-Thresher equipped with a Pick-Up Attachment. If the operator is careful to pull the beans when thoroughly ripened, usually in the morning while the dew is on, he can then thresh them that afternoon or possible the next afternoon with a minimum of loss from both shattering and cracking. When beans lay too long in the windrow the crackage will be higher. If pulled and threshed too green they spoil due to high moisture content. Experience will soon teach an operator how many acres he can handle with his machine. Attempting to handle too much acreage always results in dissatisfaction because all of the beans cannot be threshed when they are in the best threshing condition. Threshing when not in good condition causes loss from shattering, excess crackage or spoilage due to high moisture content. Then too, beans grow differently. Some have short bushes, others are inclined to vine. As a rule the more vine, the less crackage due to the cushioning effect of the vine. Some have short plump, well-filled pods that are easily opened; others have long or flat pods not easily opened. A slow cylinder speed is most desirable, but tough beans will require more speed. Beans most easily cracked can be handled best by using the concave bar cover 22371 K. If the beans are easily shelled, wood bars will be required on the cylinder and you may be able to raise the cylinder even to the maximum clearance.
Open the chaffer about one-fourth to one-half and the sieve one-fifth to one-half depending on the size of the beans. Raise the chaffer extension one-half to three-fourths up in the slots and open one-half to three-fourths. Set the wind regulator three-fourths to full open. Since the pulled beans contain considerable dirt it is advisable to use shoe bottom screen 22354 K in place of the blank in the bottom of the shoe.
3. BEANS – BABY LIMA
4. BEANS – BLACKEYE
5. BEANS – CALIFORNIA PINK
6. BEANS – CRANBERRY
7. BEANS – GREAT NORTHERN
8. BEANS – KIDNEY
9. BEANS – MARROW
10. BEANS – PEA
11. BEANS – PINTO
12. BEANS – YELLOWEYE
13. SOY BEANS – There are even more varieties of soy than edible beans. Soy beans are usually harvested as a standing crop. They are not so easily cracked as a rule, but the heavier growth and unevenly ripened pods prevalent with some varieties makes the job difficult. You must know the varieties you are to thresh in order to properly adjust the machine. Easily threshed varieties or weell ripened, dry beans require the low cylinder speed, the fewest number of bars on the concave and possibly the blank concave cover. Tough threshing varieties may require as much as 730 R.P.M. or even more. Use only a sufficient number of concave bars and a high enough cylinder speed to thresh the beans from the pods.
14. BEETS (Garden) – Seed stalks are cut and bunched by hand. The machine is pulled through the field and small bunches pitched on to the feeder. The plant breaks up very badly, so it is often necessary to cover the straw racks with the same covering supplied for Crimson Clover. Seeds do not crack easily, so heavy tailings can be carried, if necessary to do so, in order to catch all the seed.
Set the chaffer about one-half open, sieve one-half open and wind regulator one-half open.
15. BEETS (Sugar) – Seed is usually grown on irrigated beds, two rows to the bed; it is cut by hand and piled in bunches. Bunches can then be pitched into the machine by hand as machine is drawn through the field. If bunches are made small and piled lengthwise of the beds, a Pick-Up Attachment can be used. This will reduce hand labor as well as loss of seed from handling. Equip and adjust machine the same as for Garden Beets.
16. BUCKWHEAT – Usually harvested standing in the field. If thoroughly ripened, is easily threshed. Set chaffer about two-thirds open, sieve about one-fourth open and wind regulator about one-half open.
17. CABBAGE – Seed stalks are cut and bunched by hand. When thoroughly dried the bunches are pitched onto the feeder canvas of the machine as it is drawn through the field. Feed as small bunches as possible to obtain best results. Set the chaffer two-thirds open, adjustable sieve one-third open and the wind regulator one-third open.
18. CARROTS – Usually cut by hand and placed in bunches. As machine is drawn through the field, stalks are pitched on to the feeder canvas in small bunches. Since stalks break up easily it may materially aid separation to cover the straw racks.
Set chaffer about one-third open, sieve one-fourth to one-third open and very little opening on the wind regulator.
19. CLOVER (Alsike) – Usually cut and windrowed or left in swath to dry. Then use Pick-Up Attachment. Should be cut when 75 per cent of the heads are ripe or a great deal of seed will be shattered by cutting.
Set chaffer about one-third open, shoe sieve one-fourth open and use very little opening on wind regulator. Use 1/18” round hole sieve below or in place of regular adjustable sieve.
20. CLOVER (Bur) – Usually grown on old cotton fields and vines on the cotton stalks, making a very coarse mass to handle. Should use slow reel speed to prevent shattering of seed. Burs do not ripen evenly, so there will be some green material to tail over the chaffer as well as some green seed in with the dry. Seed must be carefully dried to prevent heating. Sometimes burs are allowed to drop off the plants, are then swept up and the burs only threshed. Very difficult to get clean seed, however. use 1/12” screen in lower position.
Open chaffer about one-third to one-half, adjustable sieve one-fourth and use very little opening on wind regulator.
21. CLOVER (Crimson) – Crimson clover is harvested as a standing crop or cut and cured in windrows or in the swath.
STANDING CROP – Harvest as soon as the heads are ripe and dry, since a heavy rain will cause ripe heads to shatter. Some of the hay may be green and juicy. the seed is very difficult to knock out, so travel at a slow speed and narrow the width of cut if dry mature seed is being crowded over with the chaff. A poor job of harvesting is usually due to attempting to harvest before the crop is ripe, too soon after a rain or at too high travel speed.
Open chaffer about one-half, special adjustable sieve one-fourth and wind regulators one-half. Carry chaffer extension about level with chaffer to tail over green hay. For dry clover, raise chaffer extension and open two-thirds.
Cylinder speed of 1600 to 1700 R.P.M. is preferred.
CLOVER WINDROWED or in SWATH – Swath should not be over five feed wide. Windrows should be small since the seed is very difficult to rub out and a heavy windrow will cause a great deal of seed to be pushed out with the chaff. Well dried hay breaks up and causes a heavy chaff. However, if the machine is not crowded, a heavy tailings can be carried and a large per cent of the seed saved.
22. CLOVER (Hop) – Hop clover should be cut and windrowed. When well dried it is easily threshed. Open chaffer about one-third, shoe sieve one-fourth and almost close wind regulator. Suggest using 1/18” round hole screen in the shoe.
23. CLOVER (Ladino) – Ladino clover grows flat on the ground so it must be mowed and windrowed. Pans are often used on the back of the mower bar to catch shattered seed. Use Pick-Up Attachment and thresh as soon as dry. Use 1/18” screen in shoe. Open chaffer about one-third, shoe sieve one-fourth and almost close wind regulator.
24. CLOVER (Lappaceum) – Lappaceum clover is at present found in the United States only in the heavy, black, clay soil area of Alabama. On unfertilized soil it is very short while on well-fertilized soil, it may grow as high as eighteen inches. In either case it is best to mow and windrow the crop. Allow to dry thoroughly, then using a Pick-Up Attachment on the Harvester- Thresher, pick up and thresh.
Open the chaffer one-third, shoe sieve one-fourth and use 1/18” round hole sieve. Open wind regulator about one-fourth. Raise chaffer extension and open one-half.
25. CLOVER (Mammoth) – Mammoth clover can be harvested standing, windrowed, or picked up from the swath. The swath is preferred in territories where high winds are common since they roll the windrows and make picking up difficult. Much seed may also be lost by the wind rolling the windrows.
Open chaffer one-half, shoe sieve one-fourth and use 1/12” screen in lower position. Open wind regulator about one-fourth.
A better seed crop will be obtained if Mammoth Clover is pastured or clipped in May.
26. CLOVER (Red) – Should be cut for seed when the heads are brown and the seeds have a violet tint. In most localities cutting is done when 75 to 80 per cent of the heads are brown. In some irrigated sections, however, it is allowed to stand until the majority of the heads are black. The seed crop is usually the second crop and is cut late in August or September; the June cutting which usually contains very little seed is used for hay. Clover, either in the windrow or swath, should be picked up and threshed just as soon as thoroughly dried.
Open chaffer one-half, shoe sieve one-fourth and use 1/12” round hole screen in lower position. Open wind regulator about one-fourth to one-third.
27. CLOVER (Sweet) – Is usually harvested as a standing crop. Dwarf varieties are best for combining. Larger varieties should be clipped before they begin to bloom. Seed will not all be ripe at the same time so harvesting should begin as soon as 75 per cent of the pods have turned dark brown. Use a slow reel speed to prevent shattering of seed.
Open chaffer one-half, shoe sieve one-fourth and use 1/12” round hole screen in lower position. Open wind regulator about one-fourth to one-third.
28. CLOVER (White and White Dutch) – Follow as specified for Ladino Clover (Item 23).
29. CROTOLARIA – Usually harvested as a standing crop. Seed shatters easily so a slow speed driving sprocket should be used on the reel. Cut as high as possible.
Set chaffer about one-third open, sieve one-half open and wind regulator one-half open.
30. FENUGREEK – Fenugreek is grown alone or with a supporting crop of wheat or barley. When grown alone it is mowed, windrowed and allowed to dry thoroughly before being picked up with a Pick-Up Attachment and threshed. Since the seed pods do not all ripen at one time, this method of handling produces the best seed. When grown with a grain crop, the two are harvested together as a standing crop.
Set the chaffer about one-half to two-thirds open, adjustable sieve one-fourth to one-third open and wind regulator one-half open.
31. FLAX – Flax is usually cut and windrowed. It can be harvested as a standing crop but there will be seed pods not matured. The windrowed, well-dried crop is usually in better threshing condition. Open the chaffer one-half, the adjustable shoe sieve one-fourth and wind regulator one-third to one-half.
32. GRASS (Bahia) – Bahia grass should be cut and windrowed when the seed is most free from fungus since seed matures throughout the warm season. Other pasture grass is usually mixed with Bahia grass but a mixture is desirable since it tends to reduce the fungus. When thoroughly dried the windrows can be picked up and threshed.
Set the chaffer about one-half open, adjustable sieve one-fourth open and use very little wind.
33. GRASS (Buffalo) – It is not practical to attempt to harvest native Buffalo grass. Commercial seed is produced in grass nurseries where the grass is grown in rows and cultivated, harvested as a standing crop. Seed shatters easily so a slow reel speed is required.
Open chaffer about one-half, adjustable sieve one-fourth and use very little wind.
34. GRASS (Bermuda) – Common Bermuda is a very low growing plant, often attaining a height of only a few inches. This makes it difficult to cut much of the seed stems as many may be too low to reach with the cutter bar. Giant Bermuda grows to a height of 3 to 5 feet but produces seed sparingly and in only a few areas.
Open chaffer one-third, adjustable sieve one-fourth and use the 3/32 x 1/2” screen in the lower position. Wind regulator can be closed.
35. GRASS (Blue) – When blue grass seed is ripe it shatters very easily. If let stand too long, the wind will cause much of the seed to be lost. Use a slow reel speed and cut as high as possible since the stem will be green even though the seed is ripe.
Open chaffer one-half, adjustable sieve one-fourth and use the 3/32 x 1/2” screen in the lower position. Almost close the regulator.
36. GRASS (Blue Stem) – Harvested as a standing crop. Grows tall and coarse with seed stems at the top so feeder can be raised and miss most of the green grass.
Open chaffer about two-thirds and adjustable sieve one-half. Almost close wind regulator.
37. GRASS (Brome) – Harvested as a standing crop. When ready to harvest, the seed stem will be dry about four inches down from the head. Some of the seed may be shattering. Raise feeder so that only the heads are cut off. The remainder of the plant cn be cut for hay.
Open chaffer wide open. Raise chaffer extension and open wide. Open sieve about three-fourths. Completely close wind regulator.
If crop is heavy, narrow the cut since elevators will tend to choke and good seed will be pushed over the chaffer extension. Commercial seed commonly contains 10 to 20 per cent chaff. Seed, as it comes from the Harvester-Thresher, may contain from 20 to 50 per cent chaff.
38. GRASS (Canary) – Harvested as a standing crop. Seed stems are usually 3-1/4 to 4-1/2 feet high with the seed all in the plume at the top of stem. By raising the feeder, very little of the green grass may be handled. Seeds ripen from the tip of the head downward and fall out as soon as they are ripe. Use slow reel speed.
Open chaffer one-half and adjustable sieve one-fourth; almost close wind regulator.
There are a great many more crop references in the manual. SFJ