McCormick-Deering No. 9 Horse-Drawn Mower Serviceman’s Guide
Number 9 Horse-Drawn Mower
The Serviceman’s Guide
In 1945 McCormick-Deering International published their Blue Ribbon Service Training Course “Serviceman’s Guide” for Hay Machines. Included in this excellent booklet is a section entitled “Horse-Drawn Mowers.” The material in this chapter section is all on their Number 9 High Gear Mower and offers some exceptional information presentations which are somewhat different from the operators manual (such as the one SFJ offers). We reprint here, unedited, the complete contents of this section. Hope you find this material as useful as we have. SFJ
Mowers are found on practically every farm. Perhaps it is because they are so common that the tendency exists to overlook the few chores and mechanical adjustments that are essential for their best operation.
On the other hand, attending to these details produces a smooth running, clean cutting mower which is a real satisfaction to the operator, reduces the load on the horses or tractor, and materially increases its operating life.
It is the purpose of this manual to show in outline form the more vital adjustments which will enable the serviceman to make a systematic inspection of the mower in order to apply the remedies found necessary.
In order to simplify the servicing of the mower, the information herein presented has been divided into units. The units consist of the cutter bar, cutter bar lifting parts and driving mechanism.
IMPORTANCE OF UNIT
The cutter bar and its parts make up the vital unit in the mower operation, directly effecting the draft and type of work done. If the parts are properly set and in good condition, that is, the knife and ledger plate are sharp and make correct contact, and the knife registers correctly, the mower should cut a clean swath with minimum draft.
The wearing plates support the rear part of the knife or sickle, keeping the knife sections in contact with the ledger plates. When plates become worn so that there is no more clearing between ledger plates (see Fig. 2) the knife section will tip up. This results in ragged cutting. The plates are provided with slotted holes to allow adjustment as wear occurs. After all adjustment has been taken up, the plates should be renewed. The wearing plates must line up with each other to give the knife back a straight bearing along its entire length. Be especially careful to line up new plates properly.
Knife holders hold the knife sections down close against the ledger plates (Fig. 1). If they become worn, allowing the knife to play up and down, and making poor contact with ledger plates, the holders should be hammered down.
Knife holder must fit snug on knife without binding. Never bend a knife holder down with knife under it. To fit holder to knife start at outer end of bar, pull knife from under outer holder, then tap holder down at end “A” Fig. 3. Keep trying knife under holder until it sets firmly on knife, yet allows it to work freely. Adjust each holder in the same manner. If holder is too tight on knife strike it on the top of the arch at “B” while knife is under it. A tight working knife causes heavy draft.
GUARDS AND LEDGER PLATES
The guards with the ledger plates “C” Fig. 4 divide the material being cut and protect the cutting units of the cutter bar. The ledger plate “C” acts as one-half of the shear, the knife sections acting as the other half. The sections and plates should fit together when knife is in register with a little clearance as shown in Fig. 1. To insure a clean cut, guard plates “C” Fig. 4 should be replaced when worn dull and the guards carefully set and kept in proper alignment. A special guard repair block (Fig. 5) for removing rivet and plate from any style guard and for riveting new plate is available through the parts department. Order block under No. MA-2055.
After the guard plates have been replaced, the guards should be aligned to give a sheer cut on every plate. Aligning the guards is an important and exacting operation, and the user of the mower should be instructed to check this alignment periodically throughout the cutting season. A new knife or one that is not badly worn should be used in testing and setting the guards. Begin by pounding down the high guards, first by striking on the heavy section “A” just ahead of the guard plate and then bring up the low ones. Be careful not to drive lip “B” of guard down. The clearance between lip and ledger plate should be no less than 3/8 inch as otherwise clogging may result. Guard wings “D” should also be aligned, to give a smooth surface for knife to work on. Tighten guard bolts before and after aligning guards.
Position of guard points should not be considered; the plates and wings are the important units that must be aligned. Blunt guard points may be repointed with a file or emery wheel, if available.
KNIFE OR SICKLE
Knife and sickle are both names commonly used to designate the moving part of the cutter bar which acts with the ledger plates to form a shear cut. To be technically correct, the knife is equipped with smooth sections and the sickle is equipped with serrated sections. It is essential at all times to have knife sections sharp and replace those that are nicked or broken. The knife back should always be straight; examine it by sighting down the bar.
A knife repair block with rivet set (Fig. 6) is available through the parts department; order under No. M-2192. The block is for replacing sections and straightening knife. It may also be used for riveting wrist pin (Fig. 7).
REGISTER OF KNIFE
The register of knife refers to the position of the sections in relation to the guards. The sections should center in the guards when the knife is at extreme outer or inner end of its stroke (see Fig. 8). Underside of front end of tongue should be 31″ from ground when registering knife (see Fig. 25). To correct for out of register proceed as follows (see Fig. 9):
Remove bolt “1”. Then turn flywheel shield “2” on coupling bar brace “3” in or out as required to secure proper adjustment. Replace in the reverse procedure.
When knife is out of register, uneven cutting, clogging of knife, and heavy draft result – so it is very important that the knife always be kept in correct register.
CUTTER BAR ALIGNMENT
All mowers should have a certain amount of lead in the cutter bar; that is, the outer end should be ahead of the inner end to offset the backward strain produced by the pressure of cutting. This permits the knife and pitman to run in a straight line. As the mower parts wear, the cutter bar begins to lay back until the knife is running at an angle. This results in excessive wear and breakage of cutting parts. An occasional check should be made for the correct lead. The outer end of the bar should be ahead of the inner 7/8 inch to 1-1/8 inch on a 4 ft. bar; 1-1/8 inch to 1-3/8 inch on 5 ft. bar; 1-3/8 inch to 1-5/8 inch on 6 ft. bar; and 1-5/8 inch to 1-7/8 inch for a 7 ft. bar.
To check lead on No. 9 mower, stretch a line across the face of the drive wheels parallel to the axle – as shown in Fig. 10. Then measure from the line to the back of the knife at the outer and inner end of bar. The difference between the two measures “A” and “B” is the lead of the bar.
If after replacing worn hinge pins the cutter bar should lag rearward, remove the following parts as indicated in Fig. 11 to adjust for the correct lead: lifting spring “1”, pin in gag post “2”, pin in gag lever hinge “3”, tilting rod “4”, cotter pin in rear end of coupling bar “5”, bolt in flywheel shield “6”, pitman “7”, and draft rod “8”. Then pull the entire assembly out (Fig. 12) and screw the coupling bar “5” out (turn counter-clockwise) of shoe hinge “9” one turn or enough to obtain the correct lead. Reassemble in the reverse order. Check register of knife.
CUTTER BAR LIFTING PARTS
PLAIN LIFT (REGULAR)
The plain lift mower as furnished regularly has a high level lift suitable for clearing all ordinary obstacles with the sickle in operation. When cutter bar is raised by lifting lever to first notch in quadrant, the knife runs parallel to ground. When raised to second notch the inner shoe remains the same and sickle operates at approximately 45 degree angle.
VERTICAL LIFT (SPECIAL)
A vertical lift attachment is available for horse mowers and is recommended for use only on the 4-1/2 and 5 ft. cutter bars. The attachment consists of a longer lifting lever connection, a coupling bar stop, and linkage to the clutch to throw the mower clutch out of mesh. The attachment limits the height of raise of the inner shoe, but allows the cutter bar to be swung to a vertical position by the use of the lifting lever operated from the driver’s seat.
When cutter bar is raised by lifting lever to first notch in quadrant, the knife continues to run. The coupling bar should just contact the coupling bar stop at this point. When the cutter bar is raised beyond the first notch, the mower clutch is thrown out of mesh and the knife automatically stops. When further pressure is applied to the lifting lever the cutter bar is swung to a vertical position.
The cutter bar should be held firmly in the vertical position when the latch pawl is engaged in the second notch of the quadrant. If it is not, the coupling bar stop “A” Fig. 15 should be turned counter-clockwise until it contacts the coupling bar firmly. Secure in this position with the lock nut.
The latch pawl on lifting lever is adjustable to take up wear. To adjust, screw out on nuts “1” Fig. 16. Lower rounded portion on pawl, when engaged with notch in lifting lever lock, should be approximately in line with front edge of lever. Bolts must be kept tight.
If the cutter bar is too light upon the ground, slacken the lifting spring; if too heavy, tighten spring. This is done by adjusting the bolt in lifting spring “1” Fig. 11. When properly adjusted, the lifting spring reduces the friction of the cutter bar on the ground, thus lessening the tendency toward side draft. The bulk of the weight of the cutter bar should be carried on the wheels, increasing the traction and reducing friction between bar and ground.
GAG POST ADJUSTMENT
If the outer end of bar lags behind the inner end in raising, shorten the adjustment as shown in Fig. 17. If outer end is too light, especially on short bar, lengthen the adjustment as shown. This is done by first removing the lifting spring “1” Fig. 11; then withdraw the pin “1” Fig. 17, which secures gag post to inner shoe and make adjustment as required by lengthening or shortening the gag post adjustment “2”.
The gag lever, hinge, and post assembly is adjustable to accommodate different lengths of cutter bars as well as regular or vertical lift. The holes “A” are to be used for 4-1/2 and 5 foot bars. Holes “B” are for 6 and 7 foot bars. The pin for holes “A” is 1/2 inch in diameter and the pin for holes “B” is 9/16 inch in diameter. Should the length of cutter bar ever be changed, be sure the gag lever is adjusted accordingly.
Holes “C” in the gag post and adjusting link are to be used when the mower is equipped with a plain lift and holes “D” are to be used when it is equipped with a vertical lift.
Tilting the cutter bar to the correct angle is essential to good mowing. If the ground is covered with dead grass or stubble from a previous crop the points of the guards must be tilted upward sufficiently to prevent the old stubble from choking the knife. Crops that are down and tangled may require tilting the points down so as to get under the crop and cut clean. The tilting lever on the McCormick-Deering mower has no ordinary latch. It is disengaged from the quadrant teeth by merely pulling the lever out to the side. The bar can then be tilted to the desired position.
HOW THE MOWER IS DRIVEN
Lugs, cast as a part of the face of the wheels, assure positive driving. The wheels turn the axle through ratchet pawls in the wheel hubs. Clamped and keyed to the axle is a cut-steel gear “3” Fig. 20, driving a pinion gear “4”, which is cut as an integral part of the pinion shaft “8”. On the splined portion of this shaft is the eight-jaw clutch “17” which turns the Zerol bevel gear “1”. This bevel gear drives the Zerol bevel pinion “2” on the rear end of the flywheel shaft “10”. On the front end of this shaft is the flywheel “13” which drives the pitman and sickle.
The axle turns on roller bearings “9”, the pinion shaft on ball bearings “7” & “8”, the rear end of the flywheel shaft on a ball bearing “5”, and the front end on an extra-long, babbitt-lined bearing “6” which dampens vibration and prevents “whipping.” The gears are fully enclosed in a dust-tight, leak-proof case. The deep bath of oil envelops the moving parts and assures thorough lubrication.
REMOVING WHEEL AND PAWL HOLDER
To inspect or replace pawls, a wheel, axle oil seal, axle bearings, axle shaft, or main drive gear, it is first necessary to pull one or both pawl holders and wheels. First, remove the groove pin from the pawl holder; then with a puller remove wheel and pawl holder as shown in Fig. 21. The key is tapered, keyway in axle is tapered, and keyway in pawl holder is straight so the key will not wedge as the pawl holder is pulled.
REMOVING AXLE OR MAIN DRIVE GEAR
If axle is being replaced, remove both wheels. If the main drive gear, then it is only necessary to remove the left wheel. Pull the cotters and take the two bolts (see “14” in Fig. 20) out of the main drive gear hub. Insert a wooden block between the hub and the side of the gear case and pull the axle to the right until the key, which secures the hub to the axle, can be removed. Inspect keyway and end of axle, filing off any burrs that might damage the oil seals. The axle may now be withdrawn from the frame.
With the axle out of the frame the oil seals “1” Fig. 23 and axle bearings “9” Fig. 20 can be inspected and renewed if sufficiently worn. If oil seas are to be replaced it is recommended that the axle be put in place and the main drive gear keyed and bolted in place on the axle before installing the oil seals.
Wrap a sheet of shim stock around the axle in a cone shape, slide the oil seal over the cone and onto the shaft, rotating it in the direction the shim stock is wrapped (see Fig. 22). Be sure to install the seal with the lip to the inside. Replace wear washer “2” and sand cap “3” shown in Fig. 23. Wheel and pawl holder can then be replaced.
PINION, BEVEL GEAR, AND CLUTCH ASSEMBLY
Pinion “4” Fig. 20 is integral with the shaft. It is mounted on ball bearings “7” and “8” which are carried in bearing caps. Shims are placed between cap “16” and the gear case to provide the proper clearance between the bevel gear “1” and bevel pinion “2”. Bevel gear “1” is free on the shaft and turns bevel pinion “2” only when clutch “17” is engaged. The clutch is turned by splines on the shaft so that it is always in motion when the mower is moving. A foot pedal engages or disengages the clutch and a heavy coil spring holds the clutch teeth in mesh. When the mower is in gear the clutch foot pedal is toward the rear. In this position the clutch fork should work freely in the groove to prevent undue wear on both parts. This clearance can be controlled by adjusting castellated nut on clutch fork shaft “15” Fig. 20.
The clearance between the bevel pinion and bevel gear is properly set at the factory and will require no attention for a long time if the gear case is kept filled with good oil. One of the advantages of the Zerol type bevel pinion and gear is the distinctive tooth shape which reduces tooth friction to a minimum.
Should it be necessary to remove this assembly proceed as follows: remove the castellated nut on the clutch fork shaft “15” Fig. 20, and right bearing cap with bearing “7”. This bearing is a closer fit in the cap than on the shaft and should remain in the cap. There should be one shim between this bearing cap and the side of the gear case. Next remove the left bearing cap “16” with the shims that determine bevel gear and pinion clearance. Bearing “8” is a close fit to the shaft so does not pull off with the cap. The pinion and shaft can now be pulled out through the left bearing cap opening. Bevel gear and clutch can now be lifted out. Notice that there was a thrust washer on the shaft between the pinion and the bevel gear. Also a flat washer between the right ball bearing and spring retainer.
If the bevel pinion is to be removed it will be most convenient to do so while the bevel gear is out of the case. Lock the pinion by placing a bar or large chisel between it and the side of the case. Remove the pitman and turn the flywheel counter-clockwise with a bar or wrench until the pinion turns off the threaded shaft. If the pinion is removed while the bevel gear is assembled in the case it will be necessary to slip the flywheel and shaft ahead as the pinion is turned off the shaft to prevent it crowding the bevel gear.
ADJUSTING BEVEL PINION AND GEAR
Bevel gear and pinion are Zerol type ad have curved teeth which combine certain characteristics of both spiral tooth and straight tooth bevel gears. The shape and proportion of Zerol gears are such that tooth contact is always near the center, where the tooth is the strongest and never on the ends or edges of the teeth. Proper tooth contact is as shown in Fig. 24. If replacement is necessary, the tooth clearance should be set as accurately as possible. Shims .005″ and .010″ thick should be placed between bearing cap “16” in Fig. 20 and the gear case until the bevel pinion and gear teeth have a clearance of not more than .012″ and not less than .008″.
FLYWHEEL SHAFT (See Fig. 20)
To remove the flywheel shaft proceed as follows: remove flywheel shield “11” by taking out bolt “12”, pitman from wrist pin, and gear case cover. Raise front end of mower to prevent oil from running out of flywheel bearing. Next place a chisel between bevel gear “1” and pinion “2”, then turn flywheel to the operator’s left (counter-clockwise) standing in front of mower.
When removing bevel pinion “2”, it is not necessary to withdraw flywheel shaft “10” entirely. However, if shaft is at any time taken out, be sure to remove burr on shoulder of shaft where it is in contact with bevel pinion. A burr is apt to damage oil seal at front end of flywheel bearing when shaft is removed for replacement.
GUARDS AND BAR ASSEMBLIES
TYPES OF GUARDS
MD-989 Mower Guard is a malleable guard 3″ spaced, furnished on all regular bars for the horse drawn mowers. The guard is used for average cutting conditions and is accepted as an “all around” guard.
MF-989 is a steel guard similar to MD-989, 3″ spaced and built of a material which will withstand greater shock without breaking.
M-2041 Mower Guard is a heavy duty malleable guard 3″ spaced with a heavier longer body and has serrated ledger plates. The rear or base of the guard when assembled makes contact with the next guard, assuring rigidity. m-2043 is sued as the outer guard and M-2042 is used on the inner end of the bar. The guards are adaptable for use in sever ground conditions where obstacles are encountered or for highway use. The guard, because of body thickness, is not adaptable to heavy grass crops as the MD-989 (guard will not penetrate a heavy crop as readily).
MA-2149 is a 2-1/2″ spacing guard and requires the use of a special 2-1/2″ spaced knife or sickle and a flywheel with a 2-1/2″ throw, the guard is sued as a compromise in the tow conditions where 1-1/2″ and 3″ spaced guards are most adaptable. Closer spacing of the guards lessens the ability of the guard to “clean” in the cutting of some crops. ZA-53 Weed or Brush Guard is a lipless guard and is adaptable for use in weeds or brush (cardo) or with the canning pea bar. The guard is used in conjunction with a heavy knife and is designed to clean easily under heavy cutting conditions where a 3″ spaced guard is adaptable.
M-2454 2-1/2″ Spaced Guard is of the heavy duty type and is adaptable where conditions require a compromise of 1-1/2 and 3″ spaced guard and rough and rocky terrain is encountered. M- 2456 is used on outer end of bar assembly, MA-2455 on the inner end. M-2454 make sup the balance of the guards on the bar. The guard assembly requires a 2-1/2″ spaced knife or sickle and a special flywheel with a 2-1/2″ throw.
MA-2619 Lespedeza Guard is specially designed of use in cutting lespedeza. The guard is malleable with under serrated ledger plates and is 1-1/2″ spaced using a 3″ spaced knife, thus allowing double number of serrations per stroke. The square rear or base of the guards contact each other when assembled assuring rigidity. The lespedeza bar may be used in such places as cemeteries and golf courses where closer cutting than the regular guard will afford is desired. MA-2620 guard is used on the outer end of the bar and M-2661 is sued on the inner end. The balance of the guards on the lespedeza bar are MA-2619 guards. Guards may be bolted or assembled on the regular bar.
A reaping attachment for cutting grain and special seed crops can be supplied for use with mower having 4-1/2 and 5-foot cutter bars. Attachment includes an extra seat over the right wheel for the operator, who reels the crop on to the platform with a rake and retains it until a gavel of the right size is secured, then dumps it off upon the ground. This attachment converts mowers into serviceable grain reapers for small acreages, and is excellent for harvesting clover and small seed crops.
This attachment is designed for gathering very short hay which cannot be raked easily. It is used also for gathering seed crops. The hay is gathered upon the slatted platform back of the cutter bar, and when a sufficient amount has accumulated, the drier dumps it by raising the shield as shown in Illustration 23. This is accomplished with a foot lever. Buncher attachments can be furnished for 4-1/2, 5 and 6-foot mowers.
MOWER TONGUE TRUCK
Under certain conditions owners sometimes prefer to equip their mowers with a tongue truck. The tongue truck reduces side draft and takes the neck weight off the horses. The truck is provided with a casting permitting the attachment of a draft rod running from the inner shoe hinge on the cutter bar to the tongue truck. The tongue truck can be supplies with a long pole or stub pole or without either pole when so ordered. Pneumatic-tired wheels are also available.
Lead wheels are available for #9, #25, and #16 mowers. (illustrated wheels are for the #9 mower). The attachments are used where high cutting is required for the bar to clear small obstructions, or it is desired to cut over the top of a young crop. Wheels are furnished in either steel or pneumatic tired.
The regular hand knife grinder is designed to meet the demands for a handy, portable machine with which the farmer can sharpen his mower knives easily and quickly, and still retain the correct bevel edge and cutting angle of each section. It will grind one edge of each of the two sections at the same time. The knife is then moved along and the next two sections are ground. A spring maintains the pressure of the stone against the knife and the stone is of the proper shape to give the sections the correct bevel. The knife is held in the machine by clamps and simply turning the crank moves the stone over the edges of the sections. A handle on the frame permits holding the stone at any desired point so that nicks can be ground out.
Foot Power Attachment:
This quality-built knife grinder is regularly supplied for hand power. At small extra cost, a stand, seat, pedals, chain, and sprocket will be supplied. The grinder is then clamped to the frame and operated from the seat by means of the foot pedals.
Crank for hand power and bevel stone for grinding mower knives (3-inch spacing). Weight, including stone, 20 pounds.
- Flat stone for grinding tools
- Saw gumming stone
- Beveled stone for mower knives (2-1/2 inch spacing)
- Foot power attachment (weight 50 pounds)
BALL BEARING PITMAN
A ball bearing pitman is furnished as regular equipment on the #18 mower and as special equipment on the #9, #16 and #25 mowers. The bearing consists of a wide cone with single row ball bearings, lubricated and protected from dust and dirt by a felt washer.
PEA BAR ATTACHMENTS
These bars are especially designed for harvesting green canning peas in the most efficient manner. They are equipped with stub guards, vine lifters, special outside divider, and windrower fingers. The vine lifters are of special design, smoothly finished and streamlined to give the most efficient action. The lifters are hinged and are provided with a tension spring so that the points will follow the ground closely. They pick up all the vines and raise the pods above the sickle so that none will be cut or wasted.
The stub guards between the lifters are lipless and will not clog easily. The knife sections extend beyond the ledger plates and cut readily through heavy growths. The windrower fingers turn the cut vines gently into a widrow with the pods mostly inside so that the peas remain fresh. The windrow on the five-foot bar has a center delivery while the six-foot bar has end delivery. This assures proper windrow spacing so that the windrow is deposited out of the way of the horses or tractor wheels when cutting the following round.
M-22817 is a 5-foot (center-delivery) windrower available for all current mowers having 5-foot cutter bars. It consists of steel bar to which graduated flat steel fingers are secured. There are six fingers at the outer end and three fingers at the inner end. This is the same type of windrower as used on the 5-foot canning pea bar attachment.
M-32611 is a 6-foot (end-delivery) windrower available for all current mowers having 6-foot cutter bars. It consists of eleven flat steel fingers graduated in such a way as to deliver the windrow from the inner end. This is the same type of windrower as used on the 6-foot canning pea bar attachment.
ZMA-333 is a 7-foot windrower attachment (centerdelivery) applicable to any current mower having a 7- foot cutter bar. It consists of a flat steel bar to which are bolted groups of graduated flat steel fingers. The fingers in each group are spaced three inches apart and are curved upwards and toward the center of the bar. The complete assembly is attached to the mower bar by means of clevices.
ZMA-323 is a green-crop windrower designed especially for windrowing crops which are intended to be picked up with the green-crop loader. It consists of two sets of four graduated flat steel fingers mounted independently on each end of the cutter bar. The fingers in each unite curve upwards and toward the center of the bar. This attachment can be used with any size or type bar on current mowers.