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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Dear Mr. Miller,
I recently came across this 100 year old newspaper while cleaning out the woodshed. There is an article titled “Money In Weeds” that I thought was interesting. Maybe you’ll find some other articles of note, if not for printing then maybe just for fun. Please excuse the condition it is in.
Hope all is well with you and your family.
Keep up the good fight,
Matt Stauffer, Palermo, Maine
P.S. I really enjoyed your talk years ago at the Common Ground Fair, so nice to hear it and get a chance to meet you.paula's-garden

 

MONEY IN WEEDS

reprinted from The Maine Farmer: An Agricultural and Family Newspaper, May 10, 1906

One of the simplest and most novel ways for a boy to earn money is by gathering the leaves and roots of weeds that grow by the roadside, and in the fields where they pester the farmer.

The most annoying weed the farmer has to deal with is “witch-grass,” “couch-grass,” or “quack-grass.” It was regarded once as a good thing, but it has become a nuisance. It is a coarse grass growing in clumps of two or three stems from two to four feet high from a creeping, pointed rootstalk, and bears densely-flowered, spike-like heads resembling those of rye and beardless wheat. The stems are round, smooth, thickened at the joints, and hollow, bearing from five to seven sheath-like leaves. The grass is one of the most difficult weeds to eradicate on account of the long-jointed root-stalk, each joint of which is the source of a new plant.

These roots are caught by the harrow when the land is cultivated, and it has to be dumped of its trailing burden at the edge of the patch. Here is the chance for the lad after money. The part of the grass most valuable to the pharmacist is the part most aggravating to the farmer. It is the long, tough, creeping root-stalk which creeps along just under the surface. In color it is pale yellow, smooth, about one-eighth of an inch in diameter, with joints at intervals of about an inch, from which slender, branching rootlets are produced. The tip of a root is needle-pointed.

After the root-stalks have been collected and washed, the rootlets should be removed and the root-stalks cut into short pieces about two-fifths of an inch long. The lever-feed cutter that farmers use for cutting corn fodder is good for this work. The chopped roots should then be spread out to dry on shelves in a shed or barn where there is light and air. They should be spread thinly and turned from day to day until completely cured. This process takes from three to six weeks. Be neat, for the bright, clean roots bring the highest prices.

In the drug trade “witch-grass” is known as triticum. As sold at stores it is in the form of small angular pieces, straw-colored, shiny and hollow. For medicinal purposes, it is almost wholly an imported article. About 250,000 pounds are imported annually from Europe, and the price paid is from three to seven cents per pound. In selling drugs, a sample lot, a handful, should be sent for inspection and quotation to the nearest commission merchants dealing in drugs, whose address may be secured at the home drug store. “Witch-grass” roots are best gathered in the spring when the land is under cultivation.

Later in the summer a new weed, the dandelion, is at its best for medicinal purposes. This common plant thrives everywhere but in the South. It is found in fields, in the rank roadside growths, and is especially annoying on lawns. The part of the plant valuable as a drug is its long taproot from twelve to eighteen inches long, thick and fleshy like a parsnip dull yellow or brownish on the outside, clear white on the inside, odorless and very bitter. A thick, milky juice oozes from the root when it is cut or bruised. The time to dig the root is from July to September when the milky juice is thickening and the bitterness is increasing. The root should be thoroughly washed and dried. It wrinkles lengthwise in drying, and decreases in weight one-half. Last year the imports of dandelion root amounted to 115,522 pounds, and the price paid varied from four to six cents per pound.

Other weeds that are valuable as drugs, wholly or in part, are the burdocks, mullein, lobelia and tansy. Ambitious boys may pick up considerable money in collecting drugs for the market, and even “grown-ups” may find it profitable. The modern manufacturer is successful in proportion to his ability to utilize the by-products of his factory. In the same way, farmers and farmers’ sons may convert the necessary evil by-products of their business, the weeds, into coin of the palm.—American Boy.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

I Built My Own Buckrake

I Built My Own Buckrake

by:
from issue:

One of the fun things about horse farming is the simplicity of many of the machines. This opens the door for tinkerers like me to express themselves. Sometimes it is just plain nice to take a proven design and build one of your own. Last spring I did just that. I built my own buckrake. I’m proud of the fact that it worked as it should and that my rudimentary carpentry skills produced it.

Choosing a Gas or Coal Forge for the Small Farm Shop

Choosing a Gas or Coal Forge for the Small Farm Shop

by:
from issue:

After you’ve built a small farm blacksmith shop, one of the first decisions that you’ll need to make is which type of fuel you’ll be using. Most people choose either gas (propane) or coal, however, wood fired forges are also an option. All three fuel types have pros and cons. The final decision will likely be based on the type of forging that you plan to do and the local availability of the fuel.

McCormick-Deering All Steel Corn Sheller

McCormick-Deering All-Steel Corn Sheller

from issue:

To obtain the best results in shelling, the machine should be run so that the crank makes about forty-five (45) revolutions per minute or the pulley shaft one hundred and seventy-five (175) revolutions per minute. When driving with belt be sure that this speed is maintained, as any speed in excess of this will have a tendency to cause the shelled corn to pass out with the cobs. The ears should be fed into the sheller point first.

Bobsled Building Plans

Bobsled Building Plans

Here are two, old-style, heavy-duty, bobsled building plans featuring the sort of sleds you might have found in New England and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. (In fact you might get lucky and find them still.) These are designed to haul cord wood on the sled frame.

New Buggy Gear Design

New Buggy Gear Design

by:
from issue:

As long back as most of us can remember, the plain people were using buggies for transportation. Buggy frames were mounted atop wood wheels that turned on large solid steel axles. Today, more new technology is available for buggies. Torsion axles, fiberglass and steel wheels, hydraulic disc brakes, LED lights, and sealed batteries — the list could continue.

The Cutting Edge

The Cutting Edge

by:
from issue:

In the morning we awoke to a three quarters of a mile long swath of old growth mixed conifer and aspen trees, uprooted and strewn everywhere we looked. We hadn’t moved here to become loggers, but it looked like God had other plans! We had chosen to become caretakers of this beautiful place because of the peace and quiet, the clean air, the myriad of birds and wildlife! Thus, we were presented with a challenge: how to clean up this blowdown in a clean, sustainable way.

New Idea Mower

New Idea Mower

from issue:

For proper operation the outer end of the cutter bar should lead the inner end when the machine is not in operation. After long use the cutter bar may lag back and if this happens it can be corrected by making adjustments on the cutter bar eccentric bushing as follows: First making sure that the pin and bolt in the hinge casting “A” Fig. 5 are tight and in good condition.

Log Arch

Log Arch

by:
from issue:

The arch was built on a small trailer axle that I cut down to 3 feet wide and tacked back together. This was done so that I could keep the wheels parallel. I cut the middle out after construction was complete. I used heavy wall pipe from my scrounge pile for the various frame parts. It is topped off with an angle iron bar for added strength and to provide a mount for the winch and some slots for extra chains.

SmP Hellmans Logging Equipment for Horse Traction

HELLMANS Logging Equipment for Horse Traction

The trials showed that lifting the log from the ground, either at the front and/or at the rear, by adapted equipment during the logging, has great benefits concerning the required tractive effort of the horse. Furthermore, it was found that wheeled equipment can be extremely advantageous, this not just for increasing the efficiency of the logging operation, but also for the horse’s comfort at work.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

by:
from issue:

Over the last few years of making hay, the mowing, turning and making tripods has settled into a fairly comfortable pattern, but the process of getting it all together for the winter is still developing. In the beginning I did what everyone else around here does and got it baled, but one year I decided to try one small stack. The success of this first stack encouraged me to do more, and now most of my hay is stacked loose.

Mini Horse Haying

Mini Horse Haying

by:
from issue:

The first mini I bought was a three year old gelding named Casper. He taught me a lot about what a 38 inch mini could do just by driving me around the neighborhood. He didn’t cover the miles fast, but he did get me there! It wasn’t long before several more 38 inch tall minis found their way home. I presently have four minis that are relatively quiet, responsive to the bit, and can work without a lot of drama.

Horsedrawn Plows and Plowing

Setting Up A Walking Plow

Here is a peek into the pages of Horsedrawn Plows and Plowing, written by SFJ editor and publisher Lynn R. Miller.

Delivery Wagon Plans

Delivery Wagon Plans

from issue:

While the low down delivery wagon is an improvement, the objectionable features are increased. But with all those objections the low down wagons increase every year. Their convenience outweighs all other objections. They are handy for country delivery and are fitted up inside to suit either grocers, bakers, butchers or milk delivery, or a combination of the four.

Blacksmith Forge Styles

Blacksmith Forge Styles

from issue:

Blacksmith Forge Styles circa 1920.

John Deere Model A Tractor

from issue:

Your John Deere Tractor has a range of speeds. These various speeds not only give you the flexibility and adaptability you want, but also they enable you to balance the load and the speed for maximum economy. However, if you are handling a light load and want to travel at slow speed, it is far better to put your tractor into the gear which gives you the speed you want than to use a higher gear and throttle down.

Ask A Teamster Neckyokes

Ask A Teamster: Neckyokes

I always chain or otherwise secure slip-on type neckyokes to the tongue so they don’t come off and cause an accident. Neckyokes unexpectedly coming off the tongue have caused countless problems, the likes of which have caused injuries, psychological damage, and even death to horses, and to people as well. Making sure the neckyoke is chained or otherwise secured to the tongue every time you hitch a team is a quick and easy way of eliminating a number of dangerous situations.

Cultivating Questions The Cost of Working Horses

Cultivating Questions: The Cost of Working Horses

Thanks to the many resources available in the new millennium, it is relatively easy for new and transitioning farmers to learn the business of small-scale organic vegetable production. Economic models of horse-powered market gardens, however, are still few and far between. To fill that information hole, I asked three experienced farmers to join me in tracking work horse hours, expenses and labor over a two-year period and to share the results in the Small Farmer’s Journal.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

by:
from issue:

For the last ten years, I have made hay mostly with a single horse. This has not necessarily been out of choice, as at one time I had hoped to be farming on a larger scale with more horses. Anyway, it does little good to dwell on ‘what if ’. The reality is that I am able to make hay, and through making and modifying machinery, I probably have a better understanding of hay making and the mechanics of draught.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT