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New York Organic Grazing Dairy

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

by Robert Yoder of Morrisville, NY

Photos by Ted Aber, former owner of our farm. Ted was a former extension agent of Herkimer County. He had changed the farm over to grazing, from a former conventionally cropped dairy. We were able to certify our farm to organic before we moved. Ted has become a good friend.

Little rivulets of water, bare spots in the pasture, dirty pushed together snow piles from driveway clearing, the sun is doing its springtime cleanse. Now the starlings and crows have competition — robins and red-winged blackbirds, if sound were our only sense, season change would still be obvious. Instead of manure filled barns and dwindling hay stocks, the farmers thoughts turn to grass, green already as the snow recedes. The howling blizzards, heart numbing temperature drops and rapidly diminishing wood piles are, hopefully, only memories — until next winter.

Our farm, here in the center of New York State, consists of 101 acres, about 90 in grass, the rest some woods and swamp. It is inhabited by forty-six jersey cows, twelve breeding ace heifers, one bull, and because it is calving season — an increasing number of calves. Also, four Belgian mares and a couple of buggy horses. Last, and possibly least — the farmer, farmer’s wife, and five grown children. The work force is wife, Rachel, a true partner in every way, handicapped son, Lee, who is our hay feeder and number one barn cleaner, handicapped daughter, Ruthie, who helps some in evenings, and by the way is a VIP to the calves. Youngest son, Abe, is a commercial beekeeper — introduced to his craft by the wonderful articles in Small Farmer’s Journal (The Best Kept Secret by Kirk Webster). Abe lives on the farm and helps with chores during hay making, Sunday mornings before church, and occasionally when we travel. Rachel and I have been farming since the spring of 1985. This year, if the Lord wills, I will turn sixty years old. A time of reflection, lots of memories, and an exciting future. Our youngest daughter, Verna, born the spring we started farming, lives in Ohio with her husband Mervin and their four children. They have just purchased a 215 acre farm, about a mile across the hill from us. Plans are to move in 2015 and start a sheep farm. More stories in store!

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

Back view of the house with one of Rachel’s gardens. We prefer using most of the yard for gardens instead of wasting it in nongrazable grass.

We moved to this community in May 2008; the fifth family to move here from the Holmes County, Ohio area. Our group has grown to fifteen families, with more on the way. All of us are farmers, 11 dairies, 1 beef and three that market various products directly to the consumer. We are about fifty miles south of Lake Ontario, elevation a little over thirteen hundred feet, rainfall averages 39 inches a year, on the north side of what is termed the Appalachian plateau. Snowy winters, and absolutely beautiful summers are the norm. Cool nights and reliable rainfall; high calcium soil, and good drainage lend themselves to six months of cool season grass grazing.

Grazing. That is what the cows, heifers, horses, calves, and farmers are chomping at the bit for. Turnout time has varied for us from April 13 to 23 the last six summers. Usually on full grazing — that is no hay, or very little fed, from May 1 to the first week of November. Normally, the first few days the cows are out for several hours in the afternoon only. The first short growth is very appetizing for the cows — and very dangerous. This is the time of year and stage of grass growth most apt to cause bloat. Nothing nips springtime euphoria in the bud as fast as dead bloated cows. This is entirely preventable by feeding in the barn and starting slow.

Fencing consists of two strands of H1 tensile wire along the road and single strand everywhere else. Posts are either white cedar — from the farm, or tamarack, which are purchased, pounded in with a Honda powered “wheatland” post pounder. This post pounder is owned by the community, and has had heavy use every year.

The pasture consists of fourteen permanent paddocks, with laneways providing access. Most of the entries to the paddocks are provided by simply lifting the single strand wire with a seven foot poly post, moved as needed. Poly break wires are used to further divide the paddocks as necessary. Paddocks range in size from two to eleven acres, with long narrow rectangles being the handiest. The cows have fresh pasture after every milking — twice daily. They are also sometimes moved during the day — if I have miscalculated grazing needs. The goal should be to always have well fed cows. Cows coming in hungry, wolfing down their grain, are a sign of poor grazing management.

Water is provided by buried one inch plastic lines with a quick coupler every one hundred fifty feet. Fifty gallon plastic barrels with the top third cut off, with bottom entry Jobe floats are used for drinking troughs. This barrel can be easily dumped and moved ahead with the herd. Having water in the paddock keeps the cows — and their valuable manure — in the paddocks. These barrels are entirely adequate for up to 60 cows if they are moved with the herd. I should mention that a 1 1/2” main line, from the 11 gallon a minute pump in the well, supplies the 1” lines along the laneways.

It is very important to us to not graze re-growth longer than twenty four hours. This necessitates using a back cross fence to keep the cows from re-grazing. Usually in spring and early summer we will do what is called leader-follower grazing with dry cows and heifers. Our method is to move the cows out of the paddock for milking, then moving the dry cows and heifers into the area thus vacated, then moving the back cross fence forward for the cows when they return. This requires three cross fences and two water barrels. This works very well if enough residue is left behind the cows, the rougher grasses and forbs are the right diet for dry cows. Not enough residual grasses lead to the (for me anyway) great mistake of overgrazing. Pasture can take some overgrazing in early spring, but should never be done later in the season.

As the days lengthen, the farmer walks his fields accompanied by the song of meadowlarks, and the dip and flit of Bobolinks. All is warm and peaceful, but why does he have furrowed brows? Seed heads. Some on the orchard grass. Is there a hint of some on the bluegrass? It is decision time. The grass is growing faster than we can keep up. A nice problem, but a serious one. As seed heads increase, palatability goes down, and forward movement in the paddocks slows to a crawl. Now we need to skip some paddocks for grazing and cut them for hay. The time of year to clean winters cobwebs from the brain and get to work.

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

Spotlight On: Livestock

Littlefield Notes Making Your Horses Work For You

LittleField Notes: Making Your Horses Work For You Part 1

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The practical everyday working of horses and mules in harness has always been at the heart of what the Small Farmer’s Journal is about. And like the Journal, a good horse powered farm keeps the horses at the center: the working nucleus of the farm. All the tractive effort for the pulling of machines, hauling in of crops, hauling out of manures, harvesting and planting is done as much as is practicable with the horses.

Ask A Teamster The Bit

Ask A Teamster: The Bit

I work at a farm that uses their team of Percherons to farm, give hayrides, spread manure, etc. One of the horses gets his tongue over the bit. I’ve been told he’s always done this since they had him. I have always thought: #1. You have very little control, and #2. It would hurt! The horse is very well behaved, does his work with his tongue waving in the air, and sometimes gets his tongue back in place, but at that point it’s too late. They use a snaffle bit. Any suggestions?

Icelandic Sheep

Icelandic Sheep

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I came to sheep farming from a background in the arts – with a passion for spinning and weaving. When we were able to leave our house in town to buy our small farm, a former dairy operation, I had no idea that the desire to have a couple of fiber animals would turn into full time shepherding. I had discovered Icelandic sheep, and was completely enamored of their beauty, their hardiness and their intelligence.

Lineback Cattle

Lineback Cattle

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Cattle with lineback color patterns have occurred throughout the world in many breeds. In some cases this is a matter of random selection. In others, the markings are a distinct characteristic of the breed; while in some it is one of a number of patterns common to a local type. Considering that livestock of all classes have been imported to the United States, it is not surprising that we have our own Lineback breed.

Cultivating Questions A Horsedrawn Guidance System

Cultivating Questions: A Horsedrawn Guidance System

Market gardening became so much more relaxing for us and the horses after developing a Horsedrawn Guidance System. Instead of constantly steering the horses while trying to lay out straight rows or cultivate the vegetables, we could put the team on autopilot and focus our whole attention on these precision tasks. The guidance system has been so effective that we have trusted visiting chefs to cultivate the lettuce we planned on harvesting for them a few weeks later.

Ask A Teamster Tongue Length

Ask A Teamster: Tongue Length

My forecart pole is set up for draft horses. My husband thinks we should cut the pole off to permanently make it fit better to these smaller horses. What would be your opinion? Like your husband, my preference would be a shorter tongue for a small team like your Fjords. The dynamics and efficiency of draft are better if we have our horse(s) close to the load. A shorter tongue will also reduce the overall length of your outfit, thereby giving you better maneuverability and turning dynamics.

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

This is the account of how one farm put more horse power into the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of its potato crop. Ever since we began farming on our own in 1994 one of our principle aims has been the conversion of our farm operation to live horse power wherever feasible. This has meant replacing mechanized tools such as tractors and rototillers and figuring out how to reduce human labor as we expanded upon the labor capacity of our work horses.

Types and Breeds of Poultry

From Dusty Shelves: A 1924 article on chicken breeds.

Logging with Oxen in New Hampshire

Logging with Oxen in New Hampshire

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I hear time and time again at the outset of each workshop, “I don’t know anything about working oxen.” And I say, “There is no more fun than being a beginner.” Myself and the staff get great pleasure in sharing our knowledge of working steers and oxen. For as long as there are those interested in working cattle, the men I mentioned early in this article will not be forgotten. I believe there will always be cattle worked on small farms and in the woods.

Sheep A Logical Choice

Sheep: A Logical Choice

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Sheep have numerous uses on a smallholding. They are excellent grazers and are ideal at revitalizing old pastures as well as an excellent follower of the cows in a rotational grazing system. Cropping the grass at 2-3 inches that the cows have left at 8 inches encourages new growth in the spring. Their manure is usually in pellet form and is spread throughout a pasture as they graze. A sheep shares a ton a year of fertilizer with the earth.

Calves that Don't Breathe at Birth

Calves that Don’t Breathe at Birth

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Heart rate is one way to tell if the calf is in respiratory distress, since it drops as the body is deprived of oxygen. Normal heart rate in a newborn calf is 100 to 120 beats per minute. Place your hand over the lower left side of the ribcage, just behind and above the elbow of his front leg. If heart rate has dropped as low as 40, the calf ’s condition is critical; he needs to start breathing immediately.

Cultivating Questions The Cost of Working Horses

Cultivating Questions: The Cost of Working Horses

Thanks to the many resources available in the new millennium, it is relatively easy for new and transitioning farmers to learn the business of small-scale organic vegetable production. Economic models of horse-powered market gardens, however, are still few and far between. To fill that information hole, I asked three experienced farmers to join me in tracking work horse hours, expenses and labor over a two-year period and to share the results in the Small Farmer’s Journal.

Step Ahead Horse Progress Days 2016

Step Ahead: 23rd Annual Horse Progress Days 2016

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I had only been to Horse Progress Days once before, at Mount Hope, Ohio in 2008. It had been an eye-opener, showing how strong and in touch with sustainable farming values the Amish are, and how innovative and sensible their efforts could be. So at the 23rd annual event in Howe, Indiana, I was there partly looking for signs of continuity, and partly for signs of change. Right off I spotted an Amish man with a Blue Tooth in his ear, talking as he walked along.

Livestock Guardians

Introducing Your Guard Dog To New Livestock And Other Dogs

When you introduce new animals to an established herd or flock, you should observe your dog’s reactions and behavior for a few days. Since he will be curious anyway, it is a good idea to introduce him to the new animals while he is leashed or to place the new animals in a nearby area.

Plant Poisoning in Horses & Cattle

Plant Poisoning in Horses & Cattle

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There are hundreds of plants that can be toxic to livestock. Some grow in specific regions while others are more widespread. Some are always a serious danger and others only under certain conditions. Poisoning of livestock depends on several factors, including palatability of the plant, stage of development, conditions in which they grew, moisture content of the plant and the part eaten.

Work Bridle Styles

Work Bridle Styles

Here are fourteen work bridle styles taken from a 1920’s era harness catalog. Regional variants came with different names and configurations, so much so that we have elected to identify these images by letter instead of name so you may reference these pictures directly when ordering harness or talking about repairs or fit concerns with trainers or harness makers. In one region some were know as pigeon wing and others referred to them as batwing or mule bridles.

Living With Horses

Living With Horses

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The French breed of Ardennes is closer to what the breed has been in the past. The Ardennes has always been a stockier type of horse, rude as its environment. Today the breed has dramatically changed into a real heavy horse. If the Ardennes had an average weight between 550 and 700kg in the first part of the last century, the balance shows today 1000kg and more. Thus the difference between the Ardennes and their “big” sisters, the Brabants in Belgium, or the Trait du Nord in France, has gone.

New York Horsefarmer Ed Button and his Belgians

New York Horsefarmer: Ed Button and his Belgians

In New York State one does not explore the world of draft horses long before the name of Ed Button is invariably and most respectfully mentioned. Ed’s name can be heard in the conversations of nearly everyone concerned with heavy horses from the most experienced teamsters to the most novice horse hobbyists. His career with Belgians includes a vast catalog of activities: showing, pulling, training, farming, breeding, and driving, which Ed says, “I’ve been doing since I was old enough to hold the lines.”

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