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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

by Robert Yoder of Morrisville, NY

Photos by Ted Aber, former owner of our farm. Ted was a former extension agent of Herkimer County. He had changed the farm over to grazing, from a former conventionally cropped dairy. We were able to certify our farm to organic before we moved. Ted has become a good friend.

Little rivulets of water, bare spots in the pasture, dirty pushed together snow piles from driveway clearing, the sun is doing its springtime cleanse. Now the starlings and crows have competition — robins and red-winged blackbirds, if sound were our only sense, season change would still be obvious. Instead of manure filled barns and dwindling hay stocks, the farmers thoughts turn to grass, green already as the snow recedes. The howling blizzards, heart numbing temperature drops and rapidly diminishing wood piles are, hopefully, only memories — until next winter.

Our farm, here in the center of New York State, consists of 101 acres, about 90 in grass, the rest some woods and swamp. It is inhabited by forty-six jersey cows, twelve breeding ace heifers, one bull, and because it is calving season — an increasing number of calves. Also, four Belgian mares and a couple of buggy horses. Last, and possibly least — the farmer, farmer’s wife, and five grown children. The work force is wife, Rachel, a true partner in every way, handicapped son, Lee, who is our hay feeder and number one barn cleaner, handicapped daughter, Ruthie, who helps some in evenings, and by the way is a VIP to the calves. Youngest son, Abe, is a commercial beekeeper — introduced to his craft by the wonderful articles in Small Farmer’s Journal (The Best Kept Secret by Kirk Webster). Abe lives on the farm and helps with chores during hay making, Sunday mornings before church, and occasionally when we travel. Rachel and I have been farming since the spring of 1985. This year, if the Lord wills, I will turn sixty years old. A time of reflection, lots of memories, and an exciting future. Our youngest daughter, Verna, born the spring we started farming, lives in Ohio with her husband Mervin and their four children. They have just purchased a 215 acre farm, about a mile across the hill from us. Plans are to move in 2015 and start a sheep farm. More stories in store!

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

Back view of the house with one of Rachel’s gardens. We prefer using most of the yard for gardens instead of wasting it in nongrazable grass.

We moved to this community in May 2008; the fifth family to move here from the Holmes County, Ohio area. Our group has grown to fifteen families, with more on the way. All of us are farmers, 11 dairies, 1 beef and three that market various products directly to the consumer. We are about fifty miles south of Lake Ontario, elevation a little over thirteen hundred feet, rainfall averages 39 inches a year, on the north side of what is termed the Appalachian plateau. Snowy winters, and absolutely beautiful summers are the norm. Cool nights and reliable rainfall; high calcium soil, and good drainage lend themselves to six months of cool season grass grazing.

Grazing. That is what the cows, heifers, horses, calves, and farmers are chomping at the bit for. Turnout time has varied for us from April 13 to 23 the last six summers. Usually on full grazing — that is no hay, or very little fed, from May 1 to the first week of November. Normally, the first few days the cows are out for several hours in the afternoon only. The first short growth is very appetizing for the cows — and very dangerous. This is the time of year and stage of grass growth most apt to cause bloat. Nothing nips springtime euphoria in the bud as fast as dead bloated cows. This is entirely preventable by feeding in the barn and starting slow.

Fencing consists of two strands of H1 tensile wire along the road and single strand everywhere else. Posts are either white cedar — from the farm, or tamarack, which are purchased, pounded in with a Honda powered “wheatland” post pounder. This post pounder is owned by the community, and has had heavy use every year.

The pasture consists of fourteen permanent paddocks, with laneways providing access. Most of the entries to the paddocks are provided by simply lifting the single strand wire with a seven foot poly post, moved as needed. Poly break wires are used to further divide the paddocks as necessary. Paddocks range in size from two to eleven acres, with long narrow rectangles being the handiest. The cows have fresh pasture after every milking — twice daily. They are also sometimes moved during the day — if I have miscalculated grazing needs. The goal should be to always have well fed cows. Cows coming in hungry, wolfing down their grain, are a sign of poor grazing management.

Water is provided by buried one inch plastic lines with a quick coupler every one hundred fifty feet. Fifty gallon plastic barrels with the top third cut off, with bottom entry Jobe floats are used for drinking troughs. This barrel can be easily dumped and moved ahead with the herd. Having water in the paddock keeps the cows — and their valuable manure — in the paddocks. These barrels are entirely adequate for up to 60 cows if they are moved with the herd. I should mention that a 1 1/2” main line, from the 11 gallon a minute pump in the well, supplies the 1” lines along the laneways.

It is very important to us to not graze re-growth longer than twenty four hours. This necessitates using a back cross fence to keep the cows from re-grazing. Usually in spring and early summer we will do what is called leader-follower grazing with dry cows and heifers. Our method is to move the cows out of the paddock for milking, then moving the dry cows and heifers into the area thus vacated, then moving the back cross fence forward for the cows when they return. This requires three cross fences and two water barrels. This works very well if enough residue is left behind the cows, the rougher grasses and forbs are the right diet for dry cows. Not enough residual grasses lead to the (for me anyway) great mistake of overgrazing. Pasture can take some overgrazing in early spring, but should never be done later in the season.

As the days lengthen, the farmer walks his fields accompanied by the song of meadowlarks, and the dip and flit of Bobolinks. All is warm and peaceful, but why does he have furrowed brows? Seed heads. Some on the orchard grass. Is there a hint of some on the bluegrass? It is decision time. The grass is growing faster than we can keep up. A nice problem, but a serious one. As seed heads increase, palatability goes down, and forward movement in the paddocks slows to a crawl. Now we need to skip some paddocks for grazing and cut them for hay. The time of year to clean winters cobwebs from the brain and get to work.

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

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Spotlight On: Livestock

Oxen Experiences

Oxen Experiences

by:
from issue:

Some things I have learned about working with oxen as with any other living thing is to treat them with some respect. Especially hump-backed cattle which I prefer. Be firm and gentle, but consistent, realizing you could be seriously injured if they chose. Be patient while teaching them what you want them to do, and then insisting every time that they do what you want them to do every time.

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

This is the account of how one farm put more horse power into the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of its potato crop. Ever since we began farming on our own in 1994 one of our principle aims has been the conversion of our farm operation to live horse power wherever feasible. This has meant replacing mechanized tools such as tractors and rototillers and figuring out how to reduce human labor as we expanded upon the labor capacity of our work horses.

Farmrun On the Anatomy of Thrift

On the Anatomy of Thrift: Side Butchery

On the Anatomy of Thrift is an instructional series Farmrun created with Farmstead Meatsmith. Their principal intention is instruction in the matters of traditional pork processing. In a broader and more honest context, OAT is a deeply philosophical manifesto on the subject of eating animals.

Multiple Hitching with One Set of Lines

Multiple Hitching with One Set of Lines

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from issue:

A great deal of interest has been shown the last several years in using multiple hitches in horse farming, especially in spring fieldwork. The question often asked is how to keep it simple and easy in driving and assembling the hitch as far as lines are concerned. We demonstrated our method at the Horse Progress Days at Mt. Hope, Ohio in 2003 and have been asked numerous times how we drove four, six and eight-horse hitches using only two lines.

"Work Horse Handbook, 2nd Edition" by Lynn Miller

Draft Collars and How To Size Them

It is difficult to accurately measure a horse’s neck without fitting. In other words, there are so many variables involved in the shape and size of a horse’s neck that the only accurate and easy way to size the neck is to use several collars and put them on one at a time until fitting is found.

The Brabants Farm

The Brabants’ Farm

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from issue:

The Brabants’ Farm is a multi purpose farming operation whose main goal is to promote “horsefarming.” Our philosophy is to support the transformation of regional conventional agriculture and forestry into a sustainable, socially responsible, and less petroleum dependent based agriculture, by utilizing animal drawn technology (“horsefarming”), and by meeting key challenges in 21st century small scale agriculture and forestry in Colombia and throughout South America.

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

In the practice of Zen sitting meditation, a special emphasis is placed on maintaining a relaxed but upright sitting posture, in which the vertical and horizontal axis of the body meet at a center point. Finding this core of gravity within can restore a sense of well-being and ease to the practitioner. This balanced seat of ease is not all that different from the state of relaxed concentration we need to achieve to effectively ride or drive horses.

Living With Dairy Goats

Living With Dairy Goats

by:
from issue:

Dairy goats are different than other types of livestock, even Angora goats. They are independent, unimpressed by efforts to thwart their supremacy of the barnyard (or your garden), and like to survey the world from an elevated perch. Though creatures of habit, they will usually pull off some quite unexpected performance the minute you “expect” them to do their usual routine. For the herdsperson who can keep one step ahead of them, they are one of the most enjoyable species of livestock to raise and ideal to small farms.

Plant Poisoning in Horses & Cattle

Plant Poisoning in Horses & Cattle

by:
from issue:

There are hundreds of plants that can be toxic to livestock. Some grow in specific regions while others are more widespread. Some are always a serious danger and others only under certain conditions. Poisoning of livestock depends on several factors, including palatability of the plant, stage of development, conditions in which they grew, moisture content of the plant and the part eaten.

Haying With Horses

Haying With Horses

If the reader is considering the construction of a barn we encourage you to give more than passing thought to allowing the structure of the gable to be open enough to accommodate the hanging of a trolley track. It is difficult or impossible to retrofit a truss-built barn, which may have many supports crisscrossing the inside gable, to receive hay jags. At least allowing for the option in a new construction design will leave the option for loose hay systems in the future.

Ask A Teamster The Bit

Ask A Teamster: The Bit

I work at a farm that uses their team of Percherons to farm, give hayrides, spread manure, etc. One of the horses gets his tongue over the bit. I’ve been told he’s always done this since they had him. I have always thought: #1. You have very little control, and #2. It would hurt! The horse is very well behaved, does his work with his tongue waving in the air, and sometimes gets his tongue back in place, but at that point it’s too late. They use a snaffle bit. Any suggestions?

Ask A Teamster Horse Don't Won't Can't Turn

Ask A Teamster: Horse Don’t, Won’t, Can’t Turn

After moving the drop ring on the other side down we went out to the round pen for a test drive. The difference in how she ground drove and turned was amazing – not perfect, but real sweet. With the lines at that level a right turn cue on the line obviously meant go right to her, and a left turn cue meant left. After we drove around for a while with me smiling I couldn’t resist moving the drop rings back up to the line rings – Bam, back to the old confusion.

Lineback Cattle

Lineback Cattle

by:
from issue:

Cattle with lineback color patterns have occurred throughout the world in many breeds. In some cases this is a matter of random selection. In others, the markings are a distinct characteristic of the breed; while in some it is one of a number of patterns common to a local type. Considering that livestock of all classes have been imported to the United States, it is not surprising that we have our own Lineback breed.

Chicken

How To Cure Chicken Roup: Then and Now

How To Cure The Common (Chicken) Cold

Cultivating Questions The Cost of Working Horses

Cultivating Questions: The Cost of Working Horses

Thanks to the many resources available in the new millennium, it is relatively easy for new and transitioning farmers to learn the business of small-scale organic vegetable production. Economic models of horse-powered market gardens, however, are still few and far between. To fill that information hole, I asked three experienced farmers to join me in tracking work horse hours, expenses and labor over a two-year period and to share the results in the Small Farmer’s Journal.

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

New York Organic Grazing Dairy

by:
from issue:

Our farm, here in the center of New York State, consists of 101 acres, about 90 in grass, the rest some woods and swamp. It is inhabited by forty-six jersey cows, twelve breeding ace heifers, one bull, and because it is calving season — an increasing number of calves. Also, four Belgian mares and a couple of buggy horses. Last, and possibly least — the farmer, farmer’s wife, and five grown children.

The Anatomy of Thrift: Harvest Day

On the Anatomy of Thrift Part 2: Harvest Day

On the Anatomy of Thrift is an instructional series Farmrun created with Farmstead Meatsmith. Their principal intention is instruction in the matters of traditional pork processing. In a broader and more honest context, OAT is a deeply philosophical manifesto on the subject of eating animals. Harvest Day is the second in the series, which explores the ‘cheer’ that is prepared on the day of slaughter, and dives deep into the philosophy and psychology of our relationship to animals.

A Gathering of Comtois in France

A Gathering of Comtois in France

by:
from issue:

I was soon planning for a stop in the town of Pontelier, the main hub in one corner of the country I had never been to and was bent on exploring: the Franche-Compte. As luck would have it, this region has its very own breed of draft horse, the Comtois. It was to an “exhibition” of this horse that I was heading, although thanks to my lousy French, I was not sure exactly what kind of “exhibition” I was heading to.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT