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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Popping potential of sorghum

Is a new snack coming to a theater near you?

Eating popcorn has long been synonymous with watching movies. But soon you might find yourself reaching for another popped snack option—popped sorghum.

Sorghum is a cereal grain that is becoming more popular in the United States because it’s gluten free and nutritious. Compared to popcorn, popped sorghum kernels are smaller in size. But they are no less tasty according to Nicholas Ace Pugh, a researcher in Bill Rooney’s laboratory in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University. However, more needs to be known about the best sorghum for popping.

Here, popcorn has an advantage. Growers have bred popcorn specifically for its popping capacity. However, sorghum’s popping potential hadn’t previously been promoted. There is a wide variety of genotypes, or genetic lines,of sorghum, and those specific qualities still need to be pondered.

Pugh was in pursuit. To look at the genotypes available, he planted 130 different varieties of sorghum. He also wanted to know what environments are best for growing popping sorghum. So he planted all of the varieties in three different environments. Once the plants had grown and were harvested, Pugh and his team got to popping!

But how do you pop sorghum in a scientifically useful way? First, they analyzed the characteristics of each of the different varieties of sorghum and measured the hardness of the kernels. Then they counted out 500 kernels of each variety and measured the sample’s volume. Those 500 kernel samples were heated in hot air poppers.

Originally, Pugh had planned on using ordinary air poppers. “Unfortunately, these poppers are not made for sorghum: it kept flying out of the machine!” Pugh had to outfit the poppers with wire mesh to keep the sorghum inside the devices.

With seeds safely contained in the poppers, Pugh and his team heated the kernels for two minutes and 15 seconds. Just like home popcorn poppers have observed, there were sorghum kernels that refused to pop. The team counted the number of unpopped kernels, and measured the volume of the popped kernels. All of this data demonstrated the level of popping success: percent of popped kernels and the popped volume.

The findings suggests nature may have the final say. “I was pretty surprised by just how large of a role that environment and its effect on genotype played!” Pugh says. “The results essentially showed that the environment that sorghum is grown in is perhaps one of the largest factors in determining how it will pop.”

The best environment for popping sorghum? In this experiment, the sorghum grown in Halfway, Texas popped the best. Pugh thinks this is because Halfway had the lowest average humidity. Less humidity could mean less mold on the grain. Less mold could mean less damage to the grain. And less damage to the grain could mean better popping!

Of the different varieties, the sorghum that performed the best was RIL #65, also known as “Sorg Pop.” Sorg Pop performed consistently in all three environments.

But Pugh is not satisfied with proclaiming Sorg Pop the prizewinner just yet. “It was clear from these findings that popping is highly complex in sorghum and is likely influenced by several more traits that I didn’t get to examine.”

And what does a researcher do with 390 batches of popped sorghum? “Well, you can certainly eat it. It has a fun miniature size and the taste is delicious! Of course, I might be a bit biased,” Pugh says.

Pugh has already started working on a follow-up study, so the popping continues.

Read more about Pugh’s work in Crop Science.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Moving Bees

Moving Bees

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Moving beehives from one location to another is often a necessary step in apiary management. Commercial beekeepers routinely move large numbers of hives often during a season, to pollinate crops, avoid pesticide applications or to utilize specific honey flows. Beekeeping hobbyists may also move bees to distant honey flows or pollination sites, or to bring home a newly purchased hive.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

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For the last ten years, I have made hay mostly with a single horse. This has not necessarily been out of choice, as at one time I had hoped to be farming on a larger scale with more horses. Anyway, it does little good to dwell on ‘what if ’. The reality is that I am able to make hay, and through making and modifying machinery, I probably have a better understanding of hay making and the mechanics of draught.

Cole One Horse Planters

Cole One Horse Planters

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The most populous single horse planting tools were made by Planet Junior. But they were by no means the only company producing these small farm gems. Most manufacturers included a few models and some, like Planet Junior, American and Cole specialized in the implement. What follows are fourteen different models from Cole’s, circa 1910, catalog. We published ten of these in volume 30 number three of Small Farmer’s Journal.

Fjordworks Cultural Evolution Part 2

Fjordworks: Cultural Evolution Part 2

For more than ten years we cultivated our market garden with the walk-behind cultivator. This past season we made the transition to the riding cultivator. I really enjoyed using this amazing implement. Our current team of Fjords are now mature animals (14 & 18 years old) and have been working together for 11 years, so they were certainly ready to work quietly and walk slowly enough to be effective with this precision tool.

Step Ahead Horse Progress Days 2016

Step Ahead: 23rd Annual Horse Progress Days 2016

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I had only been to Horse Progress Days once before, at Mount Hope, Ohio in 2008. It had been an eye-opener, showing how strong and in touch with sustainable farming values the Amish are, and how innovative and sensible their efforts could be. So at the 23rd annual event in Howe, Indiana, I was there partly looking for signs of continuity, and partly for signs of change. Right off I spotted an Amish man with a Blue Tooth in his ear, talking as he walked along.

Littlefield Notes: A Slower Pace

LittleField Notes: A Slower Pace

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I will probably never get a chance to sit at the throttle of a steam engine heading up some winding mountain grade and feel the romance of the rails as the lonesome sound of a steam whistle echoes off canyon walls. Nor will I sit and watch out over the bowsprit of a schooner rounding Cape Horn as the mighty wind and waves test men’s mettle and fill their spirits with the allure of the sea. It is within my reach however to draw a living from the earth using that third glorious form of transport – the horse.

Plowing with the Single Horse

Plowing with the Single Horse

All other aspects being equal, the primary difference in plowing, comfortably, with a single horse is that the animal walks on unplowed ground immediately adjacent to the previous furrow, rather than in the furrow. This will cause the point of draft at the shoulder to be somewhat higher and will dictate hitching longer and/or higher than with the animal walking down 5 to 8 inches lower in the furrow.

Homemade Cheese Press

Homemade Cheese Press

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On the Gies farmstead we occasionally wallow in goat milk. From it we make our own butter, yogurt and cheese as well as drink some. This has prompted me to build a little cheese press to help with the extra milk. The press is made from inexpensive 1/2 inch thick plastic cutting boards used for the top and bottom plates and pressure disks, white pvc pipe, and a plastic floor drain cap.

Champion No.4 Mower Reaper

The Champion No. 4 Combined Mower and Self-Raking Reaper

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The project for the winter of 2010 was a Champion No. 4 mower made sometime around 1878 by the Champion Machine Works of Springfield, Ohio. The machine was designed primarily as a mower yet for an additional charge a reaping attachment could be added. The mower was in remarkably good condition for its age. After cleaning dirt from gears and oiling, we put the machine on blocks and found that none of the parts were frozen and everything moved.

Ask A Teamster Neckyokes

Ask A Teamster: Neckyokes

I always chain or otherwise secure slip-on type neckyokes to the tongue so they don’t come off and cause an accident. Neckyokes unexpectedly coming off the tongue have caused countless problems, the likes of which have caused injuries, psychological damage, and even death to horses, and to people as well. Making sure the neckyoke is chained or otherwise secured to the tongue every time you hitch a team is a quick and easy way of eliminating a number of dangerous situations.

McCormick-Deering Ensilage Cutter No 12B

McCormick-Deering Ensilage Cutter No. 12B

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IMPORTANT TO McCORMICK DEERING OWNERS: This pamphlet has been prepared and is furnished for the purpose of giving the user as much information as possible pertaining to the care and operation of this machine. The owner is urged to read and study this instruction pamphlet and if ordinary care is exercised, he will be assured of satisfactory service.

Bobsled Building Plans

Bobsled Building Plans

Here are two, old-style, heavy-duty, bobsled building plans featuring the sort of sleds you might have found in New England and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. (In fact you might get lucky and find them still.) These are designed to haul cord wood on the sled frame.

Geiss New-Made Hay Loader

Gies’ New-Made Hayloader

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I was sitting on a 5 gallon bucket staring at the hayloader. I had a significant amount of time and money invested. My wife, the great motivating influence in my life, walked up and asked what I was thinking. I was thinking about dropping the whole project and I told her so. She told me that it had better work since I had spent so much money and time on it already. She doesn’t talk that way very often so I figured I had better come up with a solution.

The New Idea No5 Transplanter

The NEW IDEA No. 5 Transplanter

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The planting distances or intervals at which the water is released, is controlled by the gear and pinions under the shield near the driver’s right foot. The large, flat-faced gear should be so turned that the arrow on the back points straight up. The numbers on either side of the arrow will then be so arranged that the number 1, 2, 3 and 4 will be on the side of the water trip lever and will denote the various positions in which the Driven Pinion meshes with the gear.

Fjordworks Cultural Evolution Part 1

Fjordworks: Cultural Evolution Part 1

For the teamster who first and foremost just plain loves driving horses, hitching the team to a fully restored and well-oiled cultivator is a wonderful way to spend time with horses. For those intrigued by the intricacies of machines and systems, the riding cultivator offers endless opportunities for tweaking and innovation. And for those interested in herbicide free, ecologically produced vegetable and field crops, the riding cultivator is a practical and precise tool for successful cultivation.

Mini Horse Haying

Mini Horse Haying

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The first mini I bought was a three year old gelding named Casper. He taught me a lot about what a 38 inch mini could do just by driving me around the neighborhood. He didn’t cover the miles fast, but he did get me there! It wasn’t long before several more 38 inch tall minis found their way home. I presently have four minis that are relatively quiet, responsive to the bit, and can work without a lot of drama.

"Work Horse Handbook, 2nd Edition" by Lynn Miller

Draft Collars and How To Size Them

It is difficult to accurately measure a horse’s neck without fitting. In other words, there are so many variables involved in the shape and size of a horse’s neck that the only accurate and easy way to size the neck is to use several collars and put them on one at a time until fitting is found.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT