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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

by Michael Mangen of Necedah, WI

This January [1982], I got an exciting fat envelope here at the Journal office. Inside was this article on rebuilding New Idea spreaders along with a note from the authors, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Mangen of Necedah, Wisconsin. The Mangen’s operate “St. Joseph’s Implement” where they rebuild horse-drawn manure spreaders and manufacture breaking carts and multiplehitch forecarts. In the note Michael said, “Believe me, it’s much simpler to rebuild spreaders than it is writing, typing and picture-taking.” I think you’ll agree that the Mangen’s special effort to share what they know and do is a real plus for all of us. I, for one, really appreciate their time and effort in putting together this material.

Michael wanted me to mention that the No. 8, as well as the 10’s, can be rebuilt. Also he said that if you own an old spreader in need of rebuilding and you want someone else to do the hard part, you can save labor-time and money if you take the wood sides and bed out yourself before sending the machine in for rebuilding.

The diagrams and parts listings might help you identify something you need or don’t understand. A very big thank you to the Mangens. This sort of thing all adds up to better odds for us horse farmers. LRM

In all the pages of American business history, there are few stories equal to that of New Idea as a graphic illustration of the American free enterprise system. From an idea in the mind of an Ohio village schoolmaster has grown a company whose products are known and respected throughout North America and the world. It is a story of vision, hard work and trouble and heartbreaks, ingenuity, perseverance and success. Joseph Oppenheim was the schoolmaster with vision. He was concerned that at certain periods of the year, many of the boys in his school at Maria Stein, Ohio stayed at home several days each month to help in the back-bending job of unloading manure from wagons. Some crude wagon unloaders were in use then, but they were not satisfactory. The difficulty was that they did not spread the material any wider than the width of the wagon bed. He got his inspiration while watching a game of “tom ball” in the school yard. He noticed that when the ball was struck with the bat – a flat board – held at different angles, the ball was deflected to one side or the other.

One evening, with the help of his eldest son, B.C. Oppenheim, he knocked the end from a wooden cigar box and built into it a rotary paddle distributor, with the blades set at an angle. Then they filled the simulated wagon bed with chaff and operated this small distributor with power from the drivewheel of a sewing machine. This little experiment convinced Mr. Oppenheim that his idea had possibilities… Neighbors called the revolutionary manure spreaders “Oppenheim’s New Idea”… which is the origin of the company name.

Despite discouragements, Mr. Oppenheim kept steadily at his task – building, experimenting, testing his machines on neighboring farms. After months of trial and labor, six spreaders were completed and sold. Manure was spread widely, and the mechanism was quickly nicknamed “the widespread”… By 1924 Joseph Oppenheim’s idea had greatly expanded to meet the ever-increasing demand for farm machinery. This plant was capable of turning out 125 New Idea manure spreaders in an eight-hour day. That means that a finished spreader was completed every three minutes… The extremely popular Model 8 Spreader was introduced in New Idea’s Silver Anniversary year, 1924. It featured automotive type steering and an oscillating front truck which gave the machine great flexibility and made it easy to handle.

Taken from New Idea’s “75 Years The New Idea, 1899-1974”

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Pic. 1 – No. 10 identification plate same location on No. 8.

To select a Model 8, 10 or 10A for rebuilding, if you have a few to choose from – All New Idea spreaders have the raised words New Idea, Coldwater, Ohio on the bull gear. To identify a No. 8 – the sides are straight from the top to the bottom, the floor has angle irons from side to side. The front end is auto type steering. The identification tag was on the wood behind the conveyor feed selector. The No. 8 is being rebuilt in many areas due to the shortage of 10A’s and because they are still very popular. The model 10 had the identification tag in the same location as the No. 8 (Pic. 1). The model 10A had the identification tag riveted to the frame under the main feed selector (Pic. 2). The 10A is the most recent of the spreaders and all three can be rebuilt. The 10 and 10A are the most popular for rebuilding as parts are available for putting these spreaders back into use.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Pic. 2 – No. 10A identification plate.

The main items to check if you have a selection of spreaders to choose from or if you are rebuilding your present spreader are:

  1. Check the rear axle; the axle bearings located at the frame on both sides are sometimes badly worn and in some cases have never been greased, which causes the rear axle to be grooved severely. The No. 10 is exceptionally bad for this because they were steel roller bearings and they rusted which caused the axle to wear (Pic. 3). The 10A had a bronze steel backed bushing, which in most cases never caused the axle to wear (Pic. 4). If you have a 10, the newer 10A bearings will interchange.
  2. In most cases the conveyor feed shaft and sprockets are worn badly and need to be replaced. These are identical on the 10 and 10A.
  3. Check the shaft and bearings on the main cylinder. If it is a No. 10, these bearings are similar to the bearings on the axle and are normally worn, which also ruins the cylinder shaft.
Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

No. 10 axle with steel roller bearings. Note how bearing is worn, axle ruined by grooves.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

No. 10A rear axle and bearing. Check axle for grooves and check axle bushings to see if they need to be replaced.

These items mentioned will determine the amount of labor and cost of putting the spreader in condition to work again.

The following will consist of a basic step-by-step procedure which we have found as most successful in the complete rebuilding of a spreader.

  1. Put the spreader on blocks and remove the rear wheels.
  2. Remove all shields.
  3. Remove all chains.
  4. Remove widespread.
  5. Remove upper and lower cylinder.
  6. Remove angle irons from the top of the sides.
  7. Remove feed rod and drive rod, these connect the levers to the rear mechanism.
  8. Remove seat and bracket and flat iron from the front endgate.
  9. Remove all mounting brackets that hold the mechanisms to the sides of the spreader.
  10. Remove conveyor chain from the floor of the spreader.

If possible, measure or save the old rotten or worn boards for the location of the driving components which are fastened to the sides of the spreader. This will be very helpful for the reconstruction of the spreader.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Cut as close to angles as possible.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Leave boards longer for better leverage.

Using a chain saw, cut as close to the angle irons as possible (Pic. 5). Cut on one side only. This will give better leverage for removing the old wood (Pic. 6). After removing the wood from the sides, do the same to the floor. Save the wood from the four corners of the floor if possible for a pattern. These corners contain notches for the sprockets to run freely (Pic. 7).

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Note notches for conveyor sprocket to run in.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Cutting rivets from frame.

Using a bolt cutter, cut the rivets from the sides and floor of the frame (Pic. 8). A large hammer (about 2 pounds) will remove the rivets from the frame, a hole will remain. Use another hammer on the reverse side of the angles to keep them from bending or vibrating. Carefully inspect the whole frame for twists, cracks and excessive rust.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Inspect the angle irons which go from the rear axle to the widespread (Fig. 1, no. 1). The majority of these angle irons are cracked or heavily pitted from rust. If you are planning on using your spreader for a long time, these should be replaced. To replace these angles which were originally riveted to the plate above the rear axle bearing, cut the rivet heads off with a torch and punch the remainder of the rivet out (Pic. 9). Use 3/8″ x 1″ carriage bolts and lock washers to fasten the new angles to the frame.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rear main side angle, removed (fastens to the plate above the axle bearing) connects to the frame plate with two rivets originally. Use bolts to connect in rebuilding.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Make sure to square short side angle to long frame angle before starting to put new wood in spreader.

Clean and paint the frame if desired. This helps to find any cracks or spots on the frame which you may not have noticed that need some welding or repair. The paint also helps to slow down the rust. Make sure to square short angles to the frame (Pic. 10).

The rewooding is the next step to your rebuilding. The original wood in the spreader was clear Southern Pine and it was shiplapped. It is important that you find the clearest wood possible for the strength and longer life. We use a clear Southern Yellow Pine and have it CCA treated to prevent deterioration. Any hard wood will be suitable. We re-wood as it was done originally: 1) 1″x8″x12′; 2) 1″x6″x12′ in each side. The floor had 4) 1″x8″x10′ and 2) 1″x6″x10′; and the front had 4) 1″x6″.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Illus. 1. #5 – Mark board according to frame and use router to make 1/4″ groove. #6 – Small notch over rear axle 108″ from end of no. 1 board to center of notch 3/4″ deep, and 1-1/2″ each way from the center of the axle bearing. Distance from A to B is 127-1/8″. Distance from A to C is 141″.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Take whatever you decide to use for your bottom board on the sides, which should be a 1″x8″x12′. A piece of wood needs to be taken out of the bottom side board over the front axle. It’s 2″ wide, measures 18-1/2″ on the bottom edge and 14″ on the top edge of the 2″. See Illus. 1 no.  5.

Put the side board back in the spreader and mark the board at the rear axle and cut out a small half moon circle, approximately 3/4″ in from the bottom edge and 1-1/2″ each way from the center of the axle bearing. Cut out small half moon notch. Mark the board according to the rear angle and cut it to fit the frame (Illus. 1 no. 6). A small notch needs to be cut out above the conveyor shaft. After you have the bottom side board fitting the frame to suit yourself, mark the board along the curve in the frame. Rout board 1/4″ deep so board will fit into frame above front axle (Pic. 2, 11, arrows and see Illus. 1 no. 5). The board will need three holes drilled 1/4″ deep so that three rivets in the frame will fit into the board (Pic. 11, a, b, c). These holes and the routing of this is important so the conveyor tighteners will fit properly when you reassemble.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Cut out a piece of wood 2″ wide x 14″ tapered to 18-1/2″ out of lower edge of board.

Next measure and cut the second and top board. Using a router ship lathe 3/16″x3/8″, fit all the boards into the frame. The total height of your side should be 17-3/4″ to 17-7/8″. This is important so the top shields and flare boards will fit properly. After you have one side done use the first side boards for patterns for the opposite side of the spreader. It is wise to do one side completely first using a few bolts to hold the boards in the frame. This way you only make one mistake instead of two.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Illus. 2. #7 – 1st, 2nd & 3rd boards 5-1/4″x36-5/8″. #8 – Top board 5-1/2″x41-1/2″, has a 62 degree angle cut at a 15 degree bevel on each end. #9 – Foot board 39″x11″.

If you use a 1″x6″x12′ board for the flareboards (no. 4 board in Illus. 1), the pieces you cut off will be long enough to make your footboard (no. 9 in Illus. 2), or two of the endgate boards (no. 7 in Illus. 2).

The floor in most spreaders had 2) 1″x8″x111-1/4″ on each outside and 2) 1″x6″x111-1/4″ in the middle. The bottom (Illus. 3) is not the way most of the spreaders are. The rear end of the spreader is 1-1/4″ wider than the front, so each outside board has to be tapered from the front to the back 5/8″, or you can taper one board 1-1/4″ if you wish.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Illus. 3. A: Cut out 5¼” long x 3″ deep. B: 2-1/4″ shows what board is to measure after notch C is cut out. C: Cut out 1-1/4″ long x 3/4″ deep. D: Cut out 4-1/4″ deep x 2-1/2″ long. E: Notch cut out for conveyor sprocket to run in 1″x1″ center of notch 2-3/4″ from outside edge of board. Total length of floor boards 111-1/4″.

Cut the rear end of your floor boards at a 45 degree angle with saw, so the conveyor will operate correctly. All floor boards are shiplapped 3/16″x3/8″. Note illustration for all measurement of the four corners of the floor. The two outside boards are identical, but cut opposite each other.

The rear crossover angle should be squared up at this time. It should measure 114-1/4″ back from the front end of spreader; this is in most cases but not always. Bolt the crossover angle secure. This is very important so your upper cylinder shields and boards bolt in correctly. Put bottom board (no. 1 in Illus. 1) in each side and fasten with bolts.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

CONVEYOR IN CORRECT – The side near the feeding mechanism has been cut away to show the feed shaft and sprockets with the conveyor in the correct position. Note that the bar “C” has the wide portion “A” rearward or in the direction of the travel of the chain, thus pushing the manure rearward and toward the cylinder. This also gives the proper bracing to the riveting of the attachment links, preventing link breakage. A conveyor properly installed should never give any trouble.

Make sure if you are replacing the conveyor feed shaft it is done first. It is more difficult to do after the floor is in. Install floor after the no. 1 boards are bolted in. The rear of the floor boards extend from the rear angle of the spreader 3-1/2″ and are cut at a 45 degree angle. Finish putting boards in the sides of spreader. Install the bottom boards of the front endgate, but make sure to install the conveyor chain slide when bolting the boards in. The top board on the endgate has a 62 degree angle cut at a 15 degree bevel due to the fact that the front endgate was installed at a slant. The top cylinder and shields should be installed before bolting the flareboards in. Paint the inside of the spreader if desired. The footboard support and conveyor tighteners are bolted with the same bolt. Fig. 4 shows how to install conveyor chain correctly for smooth operation. Install foot boards.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

If you did completely disassemble the main cylinder, place the bearing plates in their positions. Mark the location of the bearing on the wood and drill a 2″ hole for the main cylinder bearing. Assemble main cylinder by putting shaft through holes and sliding castings to their locations. If you didn’t disassemble the main cylinder, cut out the small piece of wood (no. 11 in Illus. 1 and Fig. 3), and install main cylinder.

Install the ratchet gear on the conveyor feed shaft, bolt L338 support pin in location above ratchet gear; Fig. 1 has the measurement for this part. 10-1/2″ and 11″ down from top of the side and 5-1/2″ back from the crossover angle (no. 10 in illus.). After locating and drilling in the first two holes, drill the third hole and tighten all three bolts.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Pic. 12 – A & B: 3-1/2″ down from top of side. C: 2-3/4″ from cross angle. D: 3-1/2″ from top of side. E: 2-1/4″ from top of side. F: 5″ from cross angle. G & H: 6-3/4″ from top of side. I: 4-1/2″ from cross angle.

Locate and fasten all idler brackets and support pins to left rear side of spreader. Normally the support pins are worn badly and need to be replaced. Follow Pic. 12 for location of drive arms: all measurements are to center of holes in wood. A & B – 3-1/2″ down from the top of wood. C – 2-3/4″ from crossover angle. The idler bracket: D – 3-1/2″ down from the top of wood. E – 2-1/4″ down from the top of wood. F – 5″ from crossover angle. G & H – L400 support pin is 6-3/4″ from top of wood. I – 4-1/2″ from crossover angle.

Parts with three holes need measurements for only two holes until fastened, then drill third hole and secure part.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Install widespread and all chains according to Figs. 2 and 5. Then install and adjust the feed arm on conveyor feed shaft and connect to feed rod. Make sure the small spring is on the feed rod, as this spring absorbs the shock as the spreader operates.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Install all shields. The drive rod should be installed on the left side of spreader and should be adjusted and lubricated. The angle irons should be nailed on flareboards.

A few things of importance should be checked: all bushings in the rear axle, widespread, and main cylinder. These can be replaced with new bronze steel backed bushings. The bolt that connects the pole connection to the spreader is normally worn and should be replaced with a new 5/8″x5-1/2″ machine bolt and lock washer.

If any shafts are worn or bent, you should replace them. Many of the castings or sprockets that are good can be saved by cutting the shaft with a torch about 2″ from the casting and pushing it out with a hydraulic press. Replace worn parts and reassemble. All bearings should be checked. In all cases replace the conveyor shaft and conveyor shaft bearings. These wore excessively due to lack of grease. If you don’t replace these items, you will probably end up unloading the whole load by pitchfork someday. The approximate cost is $65 for the bearings, conveyor shaft and sprockets.

All support pins should be checked and replaced if worn. This is highly important for all moving parts to run smoothly. Finally, grease and oil your spreader well before use. It will last much longer if properly cared for.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Spotlight On: Crops & Soil

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes

This is the account of how one farm put more horse power into the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of its potato crop. Ever since we began farming on our own in 1994 one of our principle aims has been the conversion of our farm operation to live horse power wherever feasible. This has meant replacing mechanized tools such as tractors and rototillers and figuring out how to reduce human labor as we expanded upon the labor capacity of our work horses.

Onion Culture

Onion Culture

The essential requirements of a soil upon which to grow onions profitably are a high state of fertility, good mechanical condition, properties – that is, if it contains sufficient sand and humus to be easily worked, is retentive of moisture and fertilizers, and is capable of drainage – all other requirements can be met.

On-Farm Meat Processing

The demand for fresh, local meat products – with no taint of industrial process – is absolutely staggering.

What We've Learned From Compost

What We’ve Learned From Compost

by:
from issue:

Our compost piles will age for at least a year before being added to the garden. We have learned that the slow aging is more beneficial to the decomposition process as well as not losing nearly as much nitrogen to off-gassing as happens with the hot and fast methods. Another benefit is the decomposition is much more thorough, destroying weed seeds, pathogens and any unwanted chemicals much better in a slower composting setup.

Prairie Grass A Jewel Among Kernels

Prairie Grass: A Jewel Among Kernels

by:
from issue:

Years ago, my brother advised against plowing the patch of prairie on the back forty of our Hubbard, Iowa farm. “Some day,” he predicted, “that prairie will be as valuable as the rest of the 40 acres. We know how to grow corn; but that prairie was seeded by the last glacier.” Left untilled by generations of my family, the troublesome treasure has now become a jewel among a cluster of conventional crops on the farm.

Low Tillage Radish Onions

Low Tillage Radish Onions

by:
from issue:

The radishes came up quick, filling the garden canopy completely that fall, and the following spring we found the plot was clean of weeds and rows of open holes were left where the radish roots had been growing. Well, we had a few extra onion plants that spring and decided to plant them in these holes, since we already had very clear lines laid out for us and a clean seedbed. What we got were the best looking onions that have ever come out of our gardens.

Cultivating Questions

Cultivating Questions: Follow-Up On Phosphorus

We like to think that the bio-extensive approach to market gardening minimizes the risk of overloading the soil with nutrients because the fallow lands make it possible to grow lots of cover crops to maintain soil structure and organic matter rather than relying on large quantities of manure and compost. However, we are now seeing the consequences of ignoring our own farm philosophy when we resorted to off-farm inputs to correct a phosphate deficiency.

Marketable Cover Crops

Marketable Cover Crops

by:
from issue:

Our cover crops have to provide the benefits of smothering weeds, improving soil structure, and replenishing organic matter. They also have to produce some income. For these purposes, we use turnips, mustard and lettuce within our plant successions. I broadcast these seeds thickly on areas where cover crops are necessary and let them do their work.

Making Sorghum Molasses

Making Sorghum Molasses

by:
from issue:

Growing sorghum doesn’t take much work, according to Buhrman. You plant it in the spring, work it a couple of times and that’s about all that’s required until late in the growing season. That is when the work begins. Before it is cut, all the stalks have to be “bladed” – the leaves removed from the stalks. It’s then cut, then the tassles are cut off, and the stalks are fed through a crusher. The crusher forces the juices out of the plant. The sorghum juice is then boiled in a vat for four to five hours until nothing is left but the syrup.

Soil, Vegetation, and Acidity

From Dusty Shelves: Audels Gardeners and Growers Guide teaches us about soil acidity.

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate

Cultivating Questions: Winterkilled Cover Crops For A Mild Climate Part 1

Our mild climate makes it too easy to overwinter cover crops. Then the typically wet springs (and, on our farm, wet soils) let the cover put on loads of topgrowth before getting on the soil. Buckwheat is the only crop that I can be certain will winterkill. Field peas, oats, annual rye and crimson clover have all overwintered here. Any suggestions?

Ginseng Culture

Ginseng Culture

U.S. Department of Agriculture Farmer’s Bulletin No. 1184 Issued 1921, Revised 1941 — The evident preference of the Chinese for the wild root and the unsatisfactory state of the general market for cultivated ginseng have caused grave doubts as to the future prospects of the industry. These doubts will probably be realized unless growers should strive for quality of product and not for quantity of production, as has been the all too common practice in the past.

Bamboo A Multipurpose Agroforestry Crop

Bamboo: A Multipurpose Agroforestry Crop

by:
from issue:

The bamboos are gaining increased attention as an alternative crop with multiple uses and benefits: 1) domestic use around the farm (e.g., vegetable stakes, trellis poles, shade laths); 2) commercial production for use in construction, food, and the arts (e.g., concrete reinforcement, fishing poles, furniture, crafts, edible bamboo shoots, musical instruments); and 3) ornamental, landscape, and conservation uses (e.g., specimen plants, screens, hedges, riparian buffer zone).

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

We were inspired to try no-tilling vegetables into cover crops after attending the Groffs’ field day in 1996. No-tilling warm season vegetables has proved problematic at our site due to the mulch of cover crop residues keeping the soil too cool and attracting slugs. We thought that no-tilling garlic into this cover crop of oats and Canadian field peas might be the ticket as garlic seems to appreciate being mulched.

Henpecked Compost and U-Mix Potting Soil

We have hesitated to go public with our potting mix, not because the formula is top secret, but because our greenhouse experience is limited in years and scale. Nevertheless, we would like to offer what we have learned in hopes of showing that something as seemingly insignificant as putting together a potting mix can be integrated into a systems approach to farming.

Walki Biodegradable Mulching Paper

New Biodegradable Mulching Paper

Views of any and all modern farming stir questions for me. The most common wonder for me has been ‘how come we haven’t come up with a something to replace plastic?’ It’s used for cold frames, hotbeds, greenhouses, silage and haylage bagging and it is used for mulch. That’s why when I read of this new Swedish innovation in specialized paper mulching I got the itch to scratch and learn more. What follows is what we know. We’d like to know more. LRM

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT