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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PST

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

by Michael Mangen of Necedah, WI

This January [1982], I got an exciting fat envelope here at the Journal office. Inside was this article on rebuilding New Idea spreaders along with a note from the authors, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Mangen of Necedah, Wisconsin. The Mangen’s operate “St. Joseph’s Implement” where they rebuild horse-drawn manure spreaders and manufacture breaking carts and multiplehitch forecarts. In the note Michael said, “Believe me, it’s much simpler to rebuild spreaders than it is writing, typing and picture-taking.” I think you’ll agree that the Mangen’s special effort to share what they know and do is a real plus for all of us. I, for one, really appreciate their time and effort in putting together this material.

Michael wanted me to mention that the No. 8, as well as the 10’s, can be rebuilt. Also he said that if you own an old spreader in need of rebuilding and you want someone else to do the hard part, you can save labor-time and money if you take the wood sides and bed out yourself before sending the machine in for rebuilding.

The diagrams and parts listings might help you identify something you need or don’t understand. A very big thank you to the Mangens. This sort of thing all adds up to better odds for us horse farmers. LRM

In all the pages of American business history, there are few stories equal to that of New Idea as a graphic illustration of the American free enterprise system. From an idea in the mind of an Ohio village schoolmaster has grown a company whose products are known and respected throughout North America and the world. It is a story of vision, hard work and trouble and heartbreaks, ingenuity, perseverance and success. Joseph Oppenheim was the schoolmaster with vision. He was concerned that at certain periods of the year, many of the boys in his school at Maria Stein, Ohio stayed at home several days each month to help in the back-bending job of unloading manure from wagons. Some crude wagon unloaders were in use then, but they were not satisfactory. The difficulty was that they did not spread the material any wider than the width of the wagon bed. He got his inspiration while watching a game of “tom ball” in the school yard. He noticed that when the ball was struck with the bat – a flat board – held at different angles, the ball was deflected to one side or the other.

One evening, with the help of his eldest son, B.C. Oppenheim, he knocked the end from a wooden cigar box and built into it a rotary paddle distributor, with the blades set at an angle. Then they filled the simulated wagon bed with chaff and operated this small distributor with power from the drivewheel of a sewing machine. This little experiment convinced Mr. Oppenheim that his idea had possibilities… Neighbors called the revolutionary manure spreaders “Oppenheim’s New Idea”… which is the origin of the company name.

Despite discouragements, Mr. Oppenheim kept steadily at his task – building, experimenting, testing his machines on neighboring farms. After months of trial and labor, six spreaders were completed and sold. Manure was spread widely, and the mechanism was quickly nicknamed “the widespread”… By 1924 Joseph Oppenheim’s idea had greatly expanded to meet the ever-increasing demand for farm machinery. This plant was capable of turning out 125 New Idea manure spreaders in an eight-hour day. That means that a finished spreader was completed every three minutes… The extremely popular Model 8 Spreader was introduced in New Idea’s Silver Anniversary year, 1924. It featured automotive type steering and an oscillating front truck which gave the machine great flexibility and made it easy to handle.

Taken from New Idea’s “75 Years The New Idea, 1899-1974”

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Pic. 1 – No. 10 identification plate same location on No. 8.

To select a Model 8, 10 or 10A for rebuilding, if you have a few to choose from – All New Idea spreaders have the raised words New Idea, Coldwater, Ohio on the bull gear. To identify a No. 8 – the sides are straight from the top to the bottom, the floor has angle irons from side to side. The front end is auto type steering. The identification tag was on the wood behind the conveyor feed selector. The No. 8 is being rebuilt in many areas due to the shortage of 10A’s and because they are still very popular. The model 10 had the identification tag in the same location as the No. 8 (Pic. 1). The model 10A had the identification tag riveted to the frame under the main feed selector (Pic. 2). The 10A is the most recent of the spreaders and all three can be rebuilt. The 10 and 10A are the most popular for rebuilding as parts are available for putting these spreaders back into use.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Pic. 2 – No. 10A identification plate.

The main items to check if you have a selection of spreaders to choose from or if you are rebuilding your present spreader are:

  1. Check the rear axle; the axle bearings located at the frame on both sides are sometimes badly worn and in some cases have never been greased, which causes the rear axle to be grooved severely. The No. 10 is exceptionally bad for this because they were steel roller bearings and they rusted which caused the axle to wear (Pic. 3). The 10A had a bronze steel backed bushing, which in most cases never caused the axle to wear (Pic. 4). If you have a 10, the newer 10A bearings will interchange.
  2. In most cases the conveyor feed shaft and sprockets are worn badly and need to be replaced. These are identical on the 10 and 10A.
  3. Check the shaft and bearings on the main cylinder. If it is a No. 10, these bearings are similar to the bearings on the axle and are normally worn, which also ruins the cylinder shaft.
Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

No. 10 axle with steel roller bearings. Note how bearing is worn, axle ruined by grooves.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

No. 10A rear axle and bearing. Check axle for grooves and check axle bushings to see if they need to be replaced.

These items mentioned will determine the amount of labor and cost of putting the spreader in condition to work again.

The following will consist of a basic step-by-step procedure which we have found as most successful in the complete rebuilding of a spreader.

  1. Put the spreader on blocks and remove the rear wheels.
  2. Remove all shields.
  3. Remove all chains.
  4. Remove widespread.
  5. Remove upper and lower cylinder.
  6. Remove angle irons from the top of the sides.
  7. Remove feed rod and drive rod, these connect the levers to the rear mechanism.
  8. Remove seat and bracket and flat iron from the front endgate.
  9. Remove all mounting brackets that hold the mechanisms to the sides of the spreader.
  10. Remove conveyor chain from the floor of the spreader.

If possible, measure or save the old rotten or worn boards for the location of the driving components which are fastened to the sides of the spreader. This will be very helpful for the reconstruction of the spreader.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Cut as close to angles as possible.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Leave boards longer for better leverage.

Using a chain saw, cut as close to the angle irons as possible (Pic. 5). Cut on one side only. This will give better leverage for removing the old wood (Pic. 6). After removing the wood from the sides, do the same to the floor. Save the wood from the four corners of the floor if possible for a pattern. These corners contain notches for the sprockets to run freely (Pic. 7).

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Note notches for conveyor sprocket to run in.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Cutting rivets from frame.

Using a bolt cutter, cut the rivets from the sides and floor of the frame (Pic. 8). A large hammer (about 2 pounds) will remove the rivets from the frame, a hole will remain. Use another hammer on the reverse side of the angles to keep them from bending or vibrating. Carefully inspect the whole frame for twists, cracks and excessive rust.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Inspect the angle irons which go from the rear axle to the widespread (Fig. 1, no. 1). The majority of these angle irons are cracked or heavily pitted from rust. If you are planning on using your spreader for a long time, these should be replaced. To replace these angles which were originally riveted to the plate above the rear axle bearing, cut the rivet heads off with a torch and punch the remainder of the rivet out (Pic. 9). Use 3/8″ x 1″ carriage bolts and lock washers to fasten the new angles to the frame.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rear main side angle, removed (fastens to the plate above the axle bearing) connects to the frame plate with two rivets originally. Use bolts to connect in rebuilding.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Make sure to square short side angle to long frame angle before starting to put new wood in spreader.

Clean and paint the frame if desired. This helps to find any cracks or spots on the frame which you may not have noticed that need some welding or repair. The paint also helps to slow down the rust. Make sure to square short angles to the frame (Pic. 10).

The rewooding is the next step to your rebuilding. The original wood in the spreader was clear Southern Pine and it was shiplapped. It is important that you find the clearest wood possible for the strength and longer life. We use a clear Southern Yellow Pine and have it CCA treated to prevent deterioration. Any hard wood will be suitable. We re-wood as it was done originally: 1) 1″x8″x12′; 2) 1″x6″x12′ in each side. The floor had 4) 1″x8″x10′ and 2) 1″x6″x10′; and the front had 4) 1″x6″.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Illus. 1. #5 – Mark board according to frame and use router to make 1/4″ groove. #6 – Small notch over rear axle 108″ from end of no. 1 board to center of notch 3/4″ deep, and 1-1/2″ each way from the center of the axle bearing. Distance from A to B is 127-1/8″. Distance from A to C is 141″.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Take whatever you decide to use for your bottom board on the sides, which should be a 1″x8″x12′. A piece of wood needs to be taken out of the bottom side board over the front axle. It’s 2″ wide, measures 18-1/2″ on the bottom edge and 14″ on the top edge of the 2″. See Illus. 1 no.  5.

Put the side board back in the spreader and mark the board at the rear axle and cut out a small half moon circle, approximately 3/4″ in from the bottom edge and 1-1/2″ each way from the center of the axle bearing. Cut out small half moon notch. Mark the board according to the rear angle and cut it to fit the frame (Illus. 1 no. 6). A small notch needs to be cut out above the conveyor shaft. After you have the bottom side board fitting the frame to suit yourself, mark the board along the curve in the frame. Rout board 1/4″ deep so board will fit into frame above front axle (Pic. 2, 11, arrows and see Illus. 1 no. 5). The board will need three holes drilled 1/4″ deep so that three rivets in the frame will fit into the board (Pic. 11, a, b, c). These holes and the routing of this is important so the conveyor tighteners will fit properly when you reassemble.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Cut out a piece of wood 2″ wide x 14″ tapered to 18-1/2″ out of lower edge of board.

Next measure and cut the second and top board. Using a router ship lathe 3/16″x3/8″, fit all the boards into the frame. The total height of your side should be 17-3/4″ to 17-7/8″. This is important so the top shields and flare boards will fit properly. After you have one side done use the first side boards for patterns for the opposite side of the spreader. It is wise to do one side completely first using a few bolts to hold the boards in the frame. This way you only make one mistake instead of two.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Illus. 2. #7 – 1st, 2nd & 3rd boards 5-1/4″x36-5/8″. #8 – Top board 5-1/2″x41-1/2″, has a 62 degree angle cut at a 15 degree bevel on each end. #9 – Foot board 39″x11″.

If you use a 1″x6″x12′ board for the flareboards (no. 4 board in Illus. 1), the pieces you cut off will be long enough to make your footboard (no. 9 in Illus. 2), or two of the endgate boards (no. 7 in Illus. 2).

The floor in most spreaders had 2) 1″x8″x111-1/4″ on each outside and 2) 1″x6″x111-1/4″ in the middle. The bottom (Illus. 3) is not the way most of the spreaders are. The rear end of the spreader is 1-1/4″ wider than the front, so each outside board has to be tapered from the front to the back 5/8″, or you can taper one board 1-1/4″ if you wish.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Illus. 3. A: Cut out 5¼” long x 3″ deep. B: 2-1/4″ shows what board is to measure after notch C is cut out. C: Cut out 1-1/4″ long x 3/4″ deep. D: Cut out 4-1/4″ deep x 2-1/2″ long. E: Notch cut out for conveyor sprocket to run in 1″x1″ center of notch 2-3/4″ from outside edge of board. Total length of floor boards 111-1/4″.

Cut the rear end of your floor boards at a 45 degree angle with saw, so the conveyor will operate correctly. All floor boards are shiplapped 3/16″x3/8″. Note illustration for all measurement of the four corners of the floor. The two outside boards are identical, but cut opposite each other.

The rear crossover angle should be squared up at this time. It should measure 114-1/4″ back from the front end of spreader; this is in most cases but not always. Bolt the crossover angle secure. This is very important so your upper cylinder shields and boards bolt in correctly. Put bottom board (no. 1 in Illus. 1) in each side and fasten with bolts.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

CONVEYOR IN CORRECT – The side near the feeding mechanism has been cut away to show the feed shaft and sprockets with the conveyor in the correct position. Note that the bar “C” has the wide portion “A” rearward or in the direction of the travel of the chain, thus pushing the manure rearward and toward the cylinder. This also gives the proper bracing to the riveting of the attachment links, preventing link breakage. A conveyor properly installed should never give any trouble.

Make sure if you are replacing the conveyor feed shaft it is done first. It is more difficult to do after the floor is in. Install floor after the no. 1 boards are bolted in. The rear of the floor boards extend from the rear angle of the spreader 3-1/2″ and are cut at a 45 degree angle. Finish putting boards in the sides of spreader. Install the bottom boards of the front endgate, but make sure to install the conveyor chain slide when bolting the boards in. The top board on the endgate has a 62 degree angle cut at a 15 degree bevel due to the fact that the front endgate was installed at a slant. The top cylinder and shields should be installed before bolting the flareboards in. Paint the inside of the spreader if desired. The footboard support and conveyor tighteners are bolted with the same bolt. Fig. 4 shows how to install conveyor chain correctly for smooth operation. Install foot boards.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

If you did completely disassemble the main cylinder, place the bearing plates in their positions. Mark the location of the bearing on the wood and drill a 2″ hole for the main cylinder bearing. Assemble main cylinder by putting shaft through holes and sliding castings to their locations. If you didn’t disassemble the main cylinder, cut out the small piece of wood (no. 11 in Illus. 1 and Fig. 3), and install main cylinder.

Install the ratchet gear on the conveyor feed shaft, bolt L338 support pin in location above ratchet gear; Fig. 1 has the measurement for this part. 10-1/2″ and 11″ down from top of the side and 5-1/2″ back from the crossover angle (no. 10 in illus.). After locating and drilling in the first two holes, drill the third hole and tighten all three bolts.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Pic. 12 – A & B: 3-1/2″ down from top of side. C: 2-3/4″ from cross angle. D: 3-1/2″ from top of side. E: 2-1/4″ from top of side. F: 5″ from cross angle. G & H: 6-3/4″ from top of side. I: 4-1/2″ from cross angle.

Locate and fasten all idler brackets and support pins to left rear side of spreader. Normally the support pins are worn badly and need to be replaced. Follow Pic. 12 for location of drive arms: all measurements are to center of holes in wood. A & B – 3-1/2″ down from the top of wood. C – 2-3/4″ from crossover angle. The idler bracket: D – 3-1/2″ down from the top of wood. E – 2-1/4″ down from the top of wood. F – 5″ from crossover angle. G & H – L400 support pin is 6-3/4″ from top of wood. I – 4-1/2″ from crossover angle.

Parts with three holes need measurements for only two holes until fastened, then drill third hole and secure part.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Install widespread and all chains according to Figs. 2 and 5. Then install and adjust the feed arm on conveyor feed shaft and connect to feed rod. Make sure the small spring is on the feed rod, as this spring absorbs the shock as the spreader operates.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Install all shields. The drive rod should be installed on the left side of spreader and should be adjusted and lubricated. The angle irons should be nailed on flareboards.

A few things of importance should be checked: all bushings in the rear axle, widespread, and main cylinder. These can be replaced with new bronze steel backed bushings. The bolt that connects the pole connection to the spreader is normally worn and should be replaced with a new 5/8″x5-1/2″ machine bolt and lock washer.

If any shafts are worn or bent, you should replace them. Many of the castings or sprockets that are good can be saved by cutting the shaft with a torch about 2″ from the casting and pushing it out with a hydraulic press. Replace worn parts and reassemble. All bearings should be checked. In all cases replace the conveyor shaft and conveyor shaft bearings. These wore excessively due to lack of grease. If you don’t replace these items, you will probably end up unloading the whole load by pitchfork someday. The approximate cost is $65 for the bearings, conveyor shaft and sprockets.

All support pins should be checked and replaced if worn. This is highly important for all moving parts to run smoothly. Finally, grease and oil your spreader well before use. It will last much longer if properly cared for.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Spotlight On: Livestock

Ask A Teamster The Bit

Ask A Teamster: The Bit

I work at a farm that uses their team of Percherons to farm, give hayrides, spread manure, etc. One of the horses gets his tongue over the bit. I’ve been told he’s always done this since they had him. I have always thought: #1. You have very little control, and #2. It would hurt! The horse is very well behaved, does his work with his tongue waving in the air, and sometimes gets his tongue back in place, but at that point it’s too late. They use a snaffle bit. Any suggestions?

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 1

by:
from issue:

For the last ten years, I have made hay mostly with a single horse. This has not necessarily been out of choice, as at one time I had hoped to be farming on a larger scale with more horses. Anyway, it does little good to dwell on ‘what if ’. The reality is that I am able to make hay, and through making and modifying machinery, I probably have a better understanding of hay making and the mechanics of draught.

On-Farm Meat Processing

The demand for fresh, local meat products – with no taint of industrial process – is absolutely staggering.

Farmrun On the Anatomy of Thrift

On the Anatomy of Thrift: Side Butchery

On the Anatomy of Thrift is an instructional series Farmrun created with Farmstead Meatsmith. Their principal intention is instruction in the matters of traditional pork processing. In a broader and more honest context, OAT is a deeply philosophical manifesto on the subject of eating animals.

Expanding the Use of the Heavy Draught Horse in Europe

Expanding the Use of the Heavy Draught Horse in Europe

“La Route du Poisson”, or “The Fish Run,” is a 24 hour long relay which starts from Boulogne on the coast at 9 am on Saturday and runs through the night to the outskirts of Paris with relays of heavy horse pairs until 9 am Sunday with associated events on the way. The relay “baton” is an approved cross country competition vehicle carrying a set amount of fresh fish.

Praise for Small Oxen

Praise for Small Oxen

by:
from issue:

Every day in the winter, and a fair number of days in the summer, I choose to work with a team of Dexter oxen, just about the smallest breed of cattle in North America. Harv and Mr. Whistling Sweets are three years old, were named on a half-forgotten whim by my young children, and stand 38” tall at the shoulder. Sometimes, perched on top of a load of hay, moving feed for my herd of thirty cows, I look and feel comical — a drover of Dachshunds.

Horseshoeing Part 1C

Horseshoeing Part 1C

The horn capsule or hoof is nothing more than a very thick epidermis that protects the horse’s foot, just as a well fitting shoe protects the human foot. The hoof of a sound foot is so firmly united with the underlying pododerm that only an extraordinary force can separate them. The hoof is divided into three principal parts, which are solidly united in the healthy foot – namely, the wall, the sole, and the frog.

Horseshoeing Part 3B

Horseshoeing Part 3B

Besides good, tough iron for the shoe, we need an anvil with a round horn and a small hole at one end, a round-headed turning-hammer, a round sledge, a stamping hammer, a pritchel of good steel, and, if a fullered shoe is to be made, a round fuller. Bodily activity and, above all else, a good eye for measurement are not only desirable, but necessary. A shoe should be made thoughtfully, but yet quickly enough to make the most of the heat.

Work Bridle Styles

Work Bridle Styles

Here are fourteen work bridle styles taken from a 1920’s era harness catalog. Regional variants came with different names and configurations, so much so that we have elected to identify these images by letter instead of name so you may reference these pictures directly when ordering harness or talking about repairs or fit concerns with trainers or harness makers. In one region some were know as pigeon wing and others referred to them as batwing or mule bridles.

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes Part Two

These types of team implements for digging potatoes were the first big innovation in horse powered potato harvesting in the mid-19th century. Prior to the horse drawn digger the limitation on how many potatoes a farmer could plant was how many the farm crew could dig by hand. The basic design of these early diggers works so well that new models of this type of digger are once again being manufactured by contemporary horse drawn equipment suppliers.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

by:
from issue:

Over the last few years of making hay, the mowing, turning and making tripods has settled into a fairly comfortable pattern, but the process of getting it all together for the winter is still developing. In the beginning I did what everyone else around here does and got it baled, but one year I decided to try one small stack. The success of this first stack encouraged me to do more, and now most of my hay is stacked loose.

The Brabants Farm

The Brabants’ Farm

by:
from issue:

The Brabants’ Farm is a multi purpose farming operation whose main goal is to promote “horsefarming.” Our philosophy is to support the transformation of regional conventional agriculture and forestry into a sustainable, socially responsible, and less petroleum dependent based agriculture, by utilizing animal drawn technology (“horsefarming”), and by meeting key challenges in 21st century small scale agriculture and forestry in Colombia and throughout South America.

The Best Kept Secret, Revisited

The Best Kept Secret, Revisited

by:
from issue:

At the same time that U.S. commercial beekeeping is circling down in a death spiral, hobby beekeeping is booming and almost every beekeeping club in the country has at least twice as many members as it did twenty years ago. What this means is that if you are fortunate enough to live in a place with relatively clean and varied sources of pollen and nectar, the potential for a successful family-sized commercial apiary is better now than it has been for many decades.

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

In the practice of Zen sitting meditation, a special emphasis is placed on maintaining a relaxed but upright sitting posture, in which the vertical and horizontal axis of the body meet at a center point. Finding this core of gravity within can restore a sense of well-being and ease to the practitioner. This balanced seat of ease is not all that different from the state of relaxed concentration we need to achieve to effectively ride or drive horses.

Horseshoeing Part 1A

Horseshoeing Part 1A

Horseshoeing, though apparently simple, involves many difficulties, owing to the fact that the hoof is not an unchanging body, but varies much with respect to form, growth, quality, and elasticity. Furthermore, there are such great differences in the character of ground-surfaces and in the nature of horses’ work that shoeing which is not performed with great ability and care induces disease and makes horses lame.

American Milking Devons and the Flack Family Farm

American Milking Devons and the Flack Family Farm

by:
from issue:

On a sunny early September day I met Doug Flack at his biodynamic and organic farm, just South of Enosburg Falls. Doug is an American Milking Devon breeder with some of the best uddered and well behaved animals I have seen in the breed. The animals are beautifully integrated into his small and diversified farm. His system of management seems to bring out the best in the animals and his enthusiasm for Devon cattle is contagious.

Cattle Handling Part 2 Use Good Cow Sense When Handling Cattle

Cattle Handling Part 2: Use Good Cow Sense When Handling Cattle

by:
from issue:

Cattle are very intelligent, and are just as “trainable” as horses. Like horses, they “reason” differently than humans. Understanding the way cattle think and why they react to you the way they do can enable you handle them in ways that will help rather than hinder your purposes. If you can “think like a cow” you can more readily predict what cattle will do in various situations and be able to handle them with fewer problems.

Icelandic Sheep

Icelandic Sheep

by:
from issue:

I came to sheep farming from a background in the arts – with a passion for spinning and weaving. When we were able to leave our house in town to buy our small farm, a former dairy operation, I had no idea that the desire to have a couple of fiber animals would turn into full time shepherding. I had discovered Icelandic sheep, and was completely enamored of their beauty, their hardiness and their intelligence.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT