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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Cayuse Vineyards

Cayuse Vineyards

Small Farm, USA: Cayuse Vineyards

by Joel Sokoloff of Walla Walla, WA

Milton-Freewater, Oregon is an understated town in almost every way. It’s flat, well-treed, and the main drag could be mistaken for Anytown, USA. That is, with the exception of Milton-Freewater’s signature frog sculptures that adorn many a street corner, reminding one that this humble town’s inhabitants take pride in where they live. At its core, Milton-Freewater is an agricultural town, and that’s where we leave the highway and head out past the packing sheds into the orchards and wheat fields.

There’s another crop, one which has begun to proliferate in recent years, which has displaced itself over increasing acreage with each passing vintage. It’s the wine grape, vitis vinifera. How did the grape find itself here on the outskirts of Milton? If you ask one man, Christophe Baron, the answer is simple. “It’s the cobblestone. (The ground) reminds me of home”. For Christophe, home refers to France and the stone littered earth from which many famous French wines grow. Hailing from a family of vigneron champenois, Mr. Baron came upon this corner of the state by chance, saw its signature geology, and decided to establish his domaine right here in northeast Oregon. Most any farmer might look at this ground and think it the antithesis of good growing land, but Mr. Baron saw great opportunity in these weedy fields and old orchards. Sixteen years after the first vine was planted, the name Cayuse Vineyards, now encompassing nearly 55 acres of mostly Syrah grapes, has become regarded as one of the premier producers in the Northwest and beyond.

Traveling around southeastern Washington and its borderlands with Oregon, vineyards are a common sight. However, Cayuse, named after an American Indian tribe native to the area, is typical of this landscape in only the most superficial ways. One of Cayuse’s unique features stems from the beliefs brought to the business by Christophe and his crew. Enter Efrain Meza and Christopher Galasso, jacks of many trades, and garden masters extraordinaire.

Cayuse Vineyards

While producing exceptional wine is the business foundation of Cayuse, creating an environment of plant diversity and exceptional food is on par as a top tier priority. Rows of cabbage, garlic, peas, peppers, and tomatillos fill a large, fine tilthed parcel just a half mile from ‘the heart’ of Cayuse. “We want to bring organic food closer to our people”, Efrain says of their large, worker run garden, and there is a bounty to be had. The garden, unusually fecund for the middle of May, is conspicuously varied and colorful situated in this landscape. Its neatly tended rows of produce are cared for by volunteer squads of vineyard workers, organized by Efrain and Christopher. When the crops are ready to consume, Efrain distributes the produce in a CSA like manner to the 40 or so full time workers, ‘purchased’ with volunteership. The workers have a real interest in seeing the garden bear since they are its direct beneficiaries. A young latino man pounds reused vineyard stakes into the soft ground for trellising pea plants and by next month he will be eating its peas. That makes a lot of sense. “It’s a social statement. I want my people to know that good food is available to them. If you go to the store and want to buy Organic food, it’s expensive”, explains Christophe.

Asked about any special cultural practices, garden manager Christopher states that they try to employ biodynamics as much as possible. Cayuse Vineyards has been certified biodynamic, a sort of beyond organic set of cultural principles, since 2002, and that knowledge has transferred to the cultivation of annual crops as well. “We plant by the biodynamic calendar”, Efrain says, referring to the way in which moon phases, amongst other criteria, decide days of planting and harvesting. Doing so apparently has had a noticeable affect on the vigor and health of their crops. In a planting assay using (Cayuse?) oats, Efrain noticed that the seeds sown according to the Stella Natura calendar “had a certain richness of color. The stems were much stronger” than those planted out of synch, which bore grass with “spindly” stems. In the near future, they plan to spray with natural components made in accordance with biodynamic recipes to increase the health and nutrition of the crops, all part of the practice’s doctrine.

Cayuse Vineyards

The Cayuse workers get more than fresh vegetables as a part of their food shares. Meat, milk, and eggs are also seasonally available from the farm’s herd of heritage livestock, including Limousin cattle and Katahdin sheep. Pork, beef, lamb, and chicken are welcome protein supplements to the garden’s bounty and apples and cherries help to fill the workers’ larders. “It closes the biodynamic circle by integrating animals into the farm, and shows respect for the old ways,” Christophe says, referencing his agricultural heritage.

Cayuse Vineyards

Managing such a large plot of vegetables would be a very labor demanding task if it were done purely with handwork. Hoeing and raking is kept to a bare minimum through extensive use of Cayuse’s two American Belgian geldings, Red and Zeppo. Ernesto Avila and Andres Ambriz, Cayuse’s predominant horsemen, keep the garden well-cultivated. Most of the rows are spaced at thirty-two inches (81 cm), a distance they’ve found to work well with their equipment and general layout. Certain crops, such as peppers, get three feet (91.5 cm) of path space. The horses are worked singly, primarily utilizing the rugged French made Equivinum cultivation equipment they normally pull through the tight spacing of the vineyards. The equipment is extremely heavy duty, a necessary trait in the vines because of the heavy rock interference it encounters with every step. Each horse is outfitted with sturdy plow type harness, utilizing poly tube covered full chain traces and a coil-spring dampened singletree to help alleviate the strain of pulling implements through the rock strewn ground.

Cayuse Vineyards

Cayuse Vineyards

Cayuse Vineyards

Red and Zeppo are kept extremely busy through various parts of the seasons, times when there’s ample garden and vineyard to cultivate. In asking the garden managers what ideas they have for the future, they would like the team to be used more in order to depend less on neighbors and their own petroleum powered equipment. Mowing, spraying, and broad tillage tasks top the list for desired duties. However, the geldings’ primary responsibility is to the maintenance of good vineyard health, where each vine of their eight and increasing horse worked acres is passed by an animal more than a dozen times in an average year.

Cayuse Vineyards

“The stakes were a distraction at first, but they got used to it”, said Efrain when asked what sort of challenges the horses faced as they made Cayuse their home. And receiving the highest quality of shoeing and hoof care has been a priority as well, but is an issue complicated by the abundance of rocks each animal must negotiate in a typical workday. But overall, the investment in incorporating draft horses into the farm has been one well worth the effort. They are capable of cultivating the dense grape plantings, as tight as three feet across, and help create manure that’s composted and spread for increased fertility in the garden and vines. It’s the biodynamic way to close the loop, to create more fertility from within the farm, and to rely less on external inputs.

There’s another, more reverential reason to employ the horses. Christophe explained that horses were a common sight in French vineyards until the mid 1950s. Before that point in time, nearly every vineyard was cultivated with horses. They were an entrenched part of the agricultural landscape, traversing the slopes of the French countryside. Then a sharp generational shift occurred in favor of tractors, a story reminiscent of the transition here in the US. “I wanted to use horses to honor my grandfather”, Christophe explained, an emphatic nod to the traditional ways.

Cayuse Vineyards

Back in the garden, green cabbages are heading up and pepper blossoms portend summer meals filled with the heat of Mexican chiles. Christopher and Efrain, like all farmers, chat about the weather, and they discuss the future here at Cayuse, which continues to expand its holdings, but doesn’t lose sight of its beginnings, its heritage. Christophe continues to set an example for what a business like his can look like. It can be respectful of the land and its workers, providing much more than just a paycheck at the end of the month. Is there any reason why more farms shouldn’t provide sustenance for its tenders? As Christophe says, great food and great wine go naturally together. To have one and not the other is, well, “inconceivable”.

www.cayusevineyards.com

Equivinum
La Maison Romane
Rue Saint Barbe
21700 Vosne-Romanée, France
www.equivinum.com

Cayuse Vineyards

Spotlight On: Crops & Soil

Making Sorghum Molasses

Making Sorghum Molasses

by:
from issue:

Growing sorghum doesn’t take much work, according to Buhrman. You plant it in the spring, work it a couple of times and that’s about all that’s required until late in the growing season. That is when the work begins. Before it is cut, all the stalks have to be “bladed” – the leaves removed from the stalks. It’s then cut, then the tassles are cut off, and the stalks are fed through a crusher. The crusher forces the juices out of the plant. The sorghum juice is then boiled in a vat for four to five hours until nothing is left but the syrup.

Onion Culture

Onion Culture

The essential requirements of a soil upon which to grow onions profitably are a high state of fertility, good mechanical condition, properties – that is, if it contains sufficient sand and humus to be easily worked, is retentive of moisture and fertilizers, and is capable of drainage – all other requirements can be met.

Raised Bed Gardening

Raised Bed Gardening

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Raised beds may not be right for everyone, and our way is not the only way. I have seen raised beds made from rows of 5’ diameter kiddy pools, and heard of a fellow who collected junk refrigerators from the dump and lined them up on their backs into a rainbow of colored enameled steel raised beds. Even rows of five-gallon pails filled with plants count as raised beds in my estimation. Do it any way you care to, but do it if it’s right for you.

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Syrup From Oregon’s Big Leaf Maple

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from issue:

There is a great potential in establishment of a seasonal “sugarbush” industry for small farmers of the northwestern states, particularly western Oregon and Washington. Five syrup producing species of maples are found mainly east of the Rocky Mountains. The Box Elder and the Big-leaf Maple are the only syrup producing maples of the Pacific Northwest. Properly made syrup from these two western maples is indistinguishable from the syrup of maples of the midwestern and northeastern states.

Barnyard Manure

Barnyard Manure

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The amount of manure produced must be considered in planning a cropping system for a farm. If one wishes to manure one-fifth of the land every year with 10 tons per acre, there would have to be provided two tons per year for each acre of the farm. This would require about one cow or horse, or equivalent, for each six acres of land.

Fjordworks Horse Powered Potatoes Part 2

Fjordworks: Horse Powered Potatoes Part Two

These types of team implements for digging potatoes were the first big innovation in horse powered potato harvesting in the mid-19th century. Prior to the horse drawn digger the limitation on how many potatoes a farmer could plant was how many the farm crew could dig by hand. The basic design of these early diggers works so well that new models of this type of digger are once again being manufactured by contemporary horse drawn equipment suppliers.

Apple Cider Autumns Nectar

Apple Cider, Autumn’s Nectar

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While autumn’s beauty is food for our souls, autumn’s harvest provides food for our tables. Along with the many hours and days of canning and freezing our garden produce, harvest time also means apple cider making for our family. We have been making apple cider, or sweet cider as it is commonly called, for six years. Beginning slowly, the demand for our juice has resulted in a production of over six hundred gallons this year.

Cane Grinding

Cane Grinding: An Age-Old Georgia Tradition

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from issue:

Most sugar cane is processed in refineries to give us molasses, brown sugar, and various kinds of white sugar. However, some South Georgia farms that raise sugar cane still process it the old way to produce the special tasting sweetener for their own food. One such farm is the Rocking R Ranch in Kibbee, Georgia. It is owned by Charles and Patricia Roberts and their sons. The process they use has not changed in the past 100 years. This is how it is done.

Seed Quality from Two Perspectives

Seed Quality from Two Perspectives

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We are approaching this from a seed quality standpoint, not just a seed saving one. Saving seed is fairly simple to do, but the results from planting those seeds can be very mixed; without a basis of understanding of seed quality, people can be disappointed and confused as to why they got the results they did. Both the home gardener and the seed company must understand seed quality to be successful in their respective endeavors.

An Introduction To Farm Woodlands

The farm woodland is that portion of the farm which either never was cleared for tillage or pasture, or was later given back to woods growth. Thus it occupies land that never was considered suitable, or later proved unsuitable, for farm enterprises.

Prairie Grass A Jewel Among Kernels

Prairie Grass: A Jewel Among Kernels

by:
from issue:

Years ago, my brother advised against plowing the patch of prairie on the back forty of our Hubbard, Iowa farm. “Some day,” he predicted, “that prairie will be as valuable as the rest of the 40 acres. We know how to grow corn; but that prairie was seeded by the last glacier.” Left untilled by generations of my family, the troublesome treasure has now become a jewel among a cluster of conventional crops on the farm.

Farm Manure

Farm Manure

Naturally there is great variation in manure according to the animals it is made by, the feeding and bedding material, and the manner in which it is kept. Different analyses naturally shows different results and the tables here given serve only as a guide or index to the various kinds. The manure heap, by the way, is no place for old tin cans, bottles, glass, and other similar waste material.

Wild Potatoes and Calcium

Wild potatoes bring increased calcium for better tubers.Have you ever cut into a potato to find a dark spot or hollow part? Early research shows that these defects are likely the result of calcium deficiencies in the potato — and that tuber calcium is genetically linked to tuber quality.

Henpecked Compost and U-Mix Potting Soil

We have hesitated to go public with our potting mix, not because the formula is top secret, but because our greenhouse experience is limited in years and scale. Nevertheless, we would like to offer what we have learned in hopes of showing that something as seemingly insignificant as putting together a potting mix can be integrated into a systems approach to farming.

Cultivating Questions Ridge-Till Revisited

Cultivating Questions: Ridge-Till Revisited

Delay ridge building until early fall so that the cover crop on the ridge does not grow more than 12” tall before winter. The residues from a short cover crop will be much less challenging to cultivate than a tall stand of oats, especially if tangly field peas are mixed in. Waiting for the winterkilled cover crop residues to breakdown as long as possible before ridge-tilling in the spring will also make cultivation much easier until you gain familiarity with the system.

Cultivating Questions Winterkilled Cover Crops for a Mild Climate

Cultivating Questions: Winterkilled Cover Crops For A Mild Climate Part 1

Our mild climate makes it too easy to overwinter cover crops. Then the typically wet springs (and, on our farm, wet soils) let the cover put on loads of topgrowth before getting on the soil. Buckwheat is the only crop that I can be certain will winterkill. Field peas, oats, annual rye and crimson clover have all overwintered here. Any suggestions?

Planting Calendar and Other Diagrams

From Dusty Shelves: A 1943 calendar for seeding your vegetable garden.

Cultivating Questions

Cultivating Questions: Concerning the Bioextensive Market Garden

One of our goals when we first started farming here was to develop the farm as a self-contained nutrient system. Unlike the almost complete recycling of nutrients which can take place on a livestock operation, we are always amazed – even a little disturbed – to see how many tons of fertility and organic matter leave the market garden each year with so little returned to the good earth.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT