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Starting Your Farm

The Small Farmer’s Journal has decided to run editor and publisher Lynn R. Miller’s book Starting Your Farm as a serial series. Below is Chapter 2.

Chapter Two

“We can lie to ourselves about many things; but if we lie about our relationship to the land, the land will suffer, and soon we and all other creatures that share the land with suffer. If we persist in our ignorance or dishonesty, we will die, as surely as those bighorns perish from not knowing where they are. We are smarter than sheep, in most respects. Seeing the danger in ignorance, we may be moved to invent or recover some of the lore that connects us to the land, and tells us how to live in our place.” – Scott Russell Sanders

Who are You? And How Much is That Farm Worth to You?

Last chapter we started a discussion on the self analyzing procedures that might go into considerations of the purchase of a farm. We discussed the important first questions including; why you want to farm, what kind of farm you want, and where you want to farm? This chapter we’ll look at how much you might, or should, pay for a farm.

Up until the late 1980’s conventional farm lenders used to be proud of the formulas and yardsticks they employed to determine the value of a given piece of farmland and thereby the lending value. Today they are not so quick and ready with the numbers. The devastating farm crisis of the 1980’s and the resultant general farm banking collapse have forced an inch-by-inch, case-by-case, re-evaluation. That’s probably the way it should have always been. Because beyond the obvious variables of proposed crop and/or livestock, prevalent weather, region, soil types, proximity to markets, and such, there are myriad other particulars which can have dramatic effect on the value of a given piece of farm property.

WHO ARE YOU

The most powerful OTHER variable is personal circumstance (and I’m not speaking of class or social position). For example; if you want to increase the size of your farm holding and the neighbor’s twenty acres comes up for sale, it is safe to “suggest” that it will be worth more to you than someone looking for an investment. How do you factor in those two variables when deciding if the parcel is worth 400$ an acre or 2,000$ an acre? Operating farms in Lancaster County Pennsylvania have sold for twice or three times their justified farmland values to Amish families who are culturally, and personally, bound to try to remain within the communities to which they belong. And at the same time suburbia spreads like a pestilence putting altogether different pressures on those Pennsylvania farmland values.

On the flip side, there are hundreds of thousands of lovely farms with attractive buildings and good soils for sale at a fraction of their real value in areas suffering from large-scale out-migration. Portions of up-state New York, the upper peninsula of Michigan, Kansas and even the Ozarks fit that bill. In every case, these cheaper farms are located in regions that are not close to large metropolitan areas. But these depressed farm regions do enjoy strong growing seasons, good soils, proximity to some markets and the well-established fabric of farm communities. YET these are the areas that, for the time being only, many folks don’t want to live in.

That’s the oh-too-simple truth of it. If lots of folks want to live in an area, the land values go up. If they want to leave an area, the land values go down. Lancaster County is a popular place for the Amish who’ve lived there for generations, for the farmers who value the proximity to the Amish communities and other excellent market realities, and to the commuters who just want an acre in the country on a good road to the city.

But let’s get to your situation. The question was something like “how much should I pay for that farm I want?”. We need to approach the same question differently for different folks because the suitable, and/or acceptable, price per acre will vary. So we need to figure out who you are. Let’s oversimplify and lump you into one of these categories:

A. Young adults, few assets, no tools (didn’t know you needed them), no cash on hand, ineligible for conventional financing, limited to no farm experience, college education or part of one, no cultural or community ties to determine location (i.e. Amish, Native America, 3rd Generation S. Carolina Tobacco), but an abundance of health, high moral fabric, enthusiasm, industry, creative intelligence and good humor.

B. Middle ages adults, some assets (including tools), money saved, access to capital, college education, limited or no farm experience, used to convenience and comfort and high rate of pay, BUT absolutely MUST get out of the rat race and onto the farm, not as strong as you once were BUT know how to work, think you have a clear fix on what’s important, long ago determination replaced enthusiasm, in search of good humor that was lost somewhere in the city environment, think “creative intelligence” is a fancy way of saying “nut case.”

C. Middle aged adults, very few assets (unless you count this year’s vegetable garden and the cellar of canned goods plus the side of home-raised beef- Oh, and I almost forgot the old Chevy pickup is free and clear), nearly a thousand saved, bad or no credit, no education worth mentioning except lots of practical hands-on working experience including farming and ranching skills, lots of good tools (thought everyone knew they were important), used to working very hard for everything (except on Sundays), enjoy good health- humor- and outlook, value many friendships, already live in country on small rented place but always dreamed of a small farm of your own.

D. Nearing retirement or early retirement age, considerable assets (including equity in home and a stocks and bonds portfolio), $100,000 in nearly liquid form, pension and/or personal retirement income plan, no tools (or calluses), raised on a farm or ranch, adult life in city, concerned about health, education too long ago to matter, in desperate search for something long ago lost, suspect a return to farm-like setting will bring back quality of life. Concerned about protecting finances as they represent old age security.

E. Middle aged or older. Used to be a commercial scale farmer but lost everything during crisis of the eighties. Slowly building back up. Assets include full range of tools and the complete knowledge to use them plus a dangerously clear fix on how not to get into the same financial mess again. Some education, strong family, good health, moderately good rate of pay working in agri-business industry. A little saved. Not much sense of humor, bitterness overrides, straight ahead intelligence wary of “creativity.” Can’t get the NEED to own your own farmland out of your waking dreams.

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Spotlight On: People

Honoring Our Teachers

Honoring Our Teachers

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I believe that there exist many great practicing teachers, some of who deliberately set out to become one and others who may have never graduated from college but are none-the-less excellent and capable teachers. I would hazard a guess that many readers of Small Farmer’s Journal know more than one teacher who falls within this latter category. My grandfather, and artist and author Eric Sloane, were two such teachers.

Fields Farm

Fields Farm

Located within the city limits of Bend, Oregon, Fields Farm is an organic ten acre market garden operation combining CSA and Farmer’s Market sales.

American Milking Devons and the Flack Family Farm

American Milking Devons and the Flack Family Farm

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On a sunny early September day I met Doug Flack at his biodynamic and organic farm, just South of Enosburg Falls. Doug is an American Milking Devon breeder with some of the best uddered and well behaved animals I have seen in the breed. The animals are beautifully integrated into his small and diversified farm. His system of management seems to bring out the best in the animals and his enthusiasm for Devon cattle is contagious.

Rope Tricks

a short piece on rope tricks from the 20th anniversary Small Farmer’s Journal.

Birth of a Farm

Birth of a Farm

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“Isn’t it nice?” I offer to my supper companions, “to see our beautiful horses right while we’re eating? I feel like I’m on a Kentucky horse farm, with rolling bluegrass vistas.” I sweep my arm dramatically towards the view, the rigged up electric fence, the lawn straggling down to the pond, the three horses, one of whom is relieving herself at the moment. “Oh, huh,” he answers. “I was thinking it was more like a cheesy bed and breakfast.”

Fjordworks: A History of Wrecks Part 1

Fjordworks: A History of Wrecks Part 1

I am certainly not the most able of dairymen, nor the most skilled among vegetable growers, and by no means am I to be counted amongst the ranks of the master teamsters of draft horses. If there is anything remarkable about my story it is that someone could know so little about farming as I did when I started out and still manage to make a good life of it.

Congo Farm Project

Congo Farm Project

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I was at day one, standing outside an old burnt-out Belgian plantation house, donated to us by the progressive young chief of the village of Luvungi. My Congolese friend and I had told him that we would need to hire some workers to help clear the land around the compound, and to put a new roof on the building. I thought we should be able to attract at least 20 workers. Then, I looked out to see a crowd of about 800 eager villagers, each one with their own hoe.

Ham & Eggs

Ham & Eggs

Max Godfrey leads Ham & Eggs, at Plant & Sing 2012 at Sylvester Manor.

Farmrun George's Boots

George’s Boots

George Ziermann has been making custom measured, hand made shoes for 40 years. He’s looking to get out, but can’t find anyone to get in.

Mule Powered Wrecker Service

Mule Drawn Wrecker Service

This will only add fuel to those late night discoursians about the relative merits of horses over mules or viciversy. Is the horse the smarter one for hitching a ride or is the mule the smarter one for recognizing the political opportunity which this all represents? In any event these boys know what they are doing, or should, so don’t try this at home without horse tranquilizers. Remember that politics is a luke warm bowl of thin soup.

NYFC Bootstrap Videos The Golden Yoke

NYFC Bootstrap Videos: The Golden Yoke

I couldn’t have been happier to collaborate with The National Young Farmers Coaltion again when they called up about being involved in their Bootstrap Blog Series. In 2013, all of their bloggers were young and beginning lady dairy farmers, and they invited us on board to consult and collaborate in the production of videos of each farmer contributor to the blog series.

The Real Work Karbaumer Farm

The Real Work Karbaumer Farm

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A bold and opinionated German, Klaus moved to the midwest over 25 years ago from Bavaria and is currently running the only tractor-less farm in Platte County, Missouri operated by draft horses. Karbaumer Farm tries to “live and grow in harmony with Nature and her seasons” and produces over 50 varieties of chemical-free, organic vegetables for the community, providing a CSA or the greater Kansas City area.

To Market, To Market, To Buy A Fat Pig

Within so-called alternative agriculture circles there are turf wars abrew

Farmrun - Sylvester Manor

Sylvester Manor

Sylvester Manor is an educational farm on Shelter Island, whose mission is to cultivate, preserve, and share these lands, buildings, and stories — inviting new thought about the importance of food, culture and place in our daily lives.

The Shallow Insistence

…a life of melody, poetry and farming?

Livery and Feed

Livery & Feed

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A livery stable, for the benefit of those who never heard of one, was an establishment which catered to horses. It boarded them, doctored them, and bred them, whenever any of these services were required. It also furnished “rigs” — a horse and buggy or perhaps a team, for anyone who wished to ride, rather than walk, about the town or countryside. It was a popular service for traveling men who came into town on the railway train and wanted to call on customers in cross-road communities.

In Memoriam Gene Logsdon

In Memoriam: Gene Logsdon

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Gene didn’t see life (or much of anything else) through conventional eyes. I remember his comment about a course he took in psychology when he was trying to argue that animals did in fact have personalities (as any farmer or rancher will tell you is absolutely true), and the teacher basically told him to sit down and shut up because he didn’t know what he was taking about. Gene said: “I was so angry I left the course and then left the whole stupid school.”

Biodynamic Meeting at Ruby and Amber’s Organic Farm

Biodynamic Meeting at Ruby and Amber’s Organic Farm

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One weekend I attended a Biodynamic meeting at Ruby and Amber’s Organic Farm in Dorena, Oregon, in the Row River Valley, just east of Cottage Grove. I always enjoy seeing other food growing operations, as this is such an infinitely broad subject, there is always much to learn from others’ experiences. At this farm, draft horses are used for much of the work.

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