Small Farmer's Journal

Facebook  YouTube

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PST

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Syrup From Oregon’s Big Leaf Maple

by Victor Morejohn, photos by Tal Blankenship

There is a great potential in establishment of a seasonal “sugarbush” industry for small farmers of the northwestern states, particularly western Oregon and Washington.

Five syrup producing species of maples (Sugar, Black, Red, Silver, Box Elder) are found mainly east of the Rocky Mountains. These species overlap in geographic distribution from the southern Great Lakes region eastward. The Sugar Maple (Acre saccharum), often called hard rock maple, and the Black Maple (Acre nigrum) are considered the most important syrup producing species in the United States.

The Box Elder (Acre negundo) and the Big-leaf Maple (Acre macrophyllum) are the only syrup producing maples of the Pacific Northwest. Properly made syrup from these two western maples is indistinguishable from the syrup of maples of the midwestern and northeastern states.

When to Tap the Trees

Whether you live in the northeast, midwest or along the Pacific slope, the time to start tapping the trees may come anytime from mid-January to mid-March, whenever spring begins fingering into winter. In most areas of the northwest, January and February are the months to begin tapping. The time to tap maples for sap is on clear, warm days after a snowy, icy or frosty night, when the temperature drops below freezing. At this time of year, west of the Cascades in central and southern Oregon, weather conditions from year to year, however, are unreliable. We may have five to six weeks without frosts, overcast days or intermittent rains with night-time temperatures above freezing. If so, no maple syrup for that year. Or we may be blessed with clear, sunny days with above freezing daytime temperatures and crispy, frosted clear nights below freezing. This type of weather makes the sap flow.

I generally cut a branch tip off below a bud and watch it for a few minutes. If it begins to bleed sap, it is time to get your brace and 7/16″ wood bit and start drilling your holes. We have over fifty-five Big Leaf Maples along a 3/4 mile stretch of our farm along the South Umpqua River. I try to be selective and choose trees that are not too crowded with Ash or Cottonwood trees. I choose open-crowned trees that have not been reaching for sunlight under the larger Cottonwoods. These trees produce more leaves (have more chlorophyll) and consequently are capable of putting more sugar in their sap.

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Figure 1: The commercial type of spile (below) with hook attached and its solid steel driver (above). The part of the spile that fits into the hole in the tree is to the right of the hook. Note that it has openings along the tapered side and at the tip.

How to Tap Trees

Although it is recommended that holes be drilled on the southern side of maples for more sap flow, I have found that some trees located on southern exposed river banks, where I could only tap the north side, have yielded as much sap as trees of similar size tapped on their southern side.

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Figure 2: The steel driver, between thumb and forefinger, is inserted into the spout end of the spile. Together they are placed into the tapped hole and with several hammer blows, the spile is driven in snug up to the hook.

Make the holes about waist high, three to four inches deep, slightly inclined upward into the tree; and clean out all shavings with a narrow, pointed knife. Once the hole is made, a conveyance is necessary to direct the sap into a container. Any type of cylindrical, hollow structure may be used, such as finger-sized, straight twigs that have pithy cores. These may be hollowed out and will do the job. Plastic or galvanized pipe also may be used. Commercially these things are called “spiles” (Figure 1) and are available in several styles relatively cheap ($.30 to $.75) and may be purchased from several midwestern or northeastern maple syrup and equipment and supply companies. Homemade spiles are not as efficient as the commercially manufactured types, mainly because plastic or galvanized pipe sections are not tapered. The commercial types are conical (tapered sides) for several reasons: the neck of the spile is larger in diameter (1/2″) than the bored hole (7/16″) and are hammered into the hole to make a snug fit at the neck of the spile (Figure 2). In this manner, the conical part of the spile in the hole does not touch the sides of the holes. Essentially the neck of the spile plugs the hole, preventing leakage, and sap can freely flow into the space around and in the spile tip. The metal nubbin above the spile spout serves to allow a claw hammer or small prybar to remove the spile for cleaning or for end-season removal. Plastic or galvanized pipe sections have parallel sides, fit tightly along the length of the hole, allow sap to enter only from the end within the hole, and are difficult to remove from the trees. Our neighbor, Ray Hicke, downriver from us, told me that when he was a youngster back in the Dakotas, he helped his Dad tap maples. For spiles, his Dad used old sickle bar teeth, slightly bent from tip to base to serve as spouts. He drove them point first into the trees below a drilled hole and used the rivet holes on the end of the base to wire on his containers.

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Figure 3: Most any container can be used. This one had holes made with a nail below the rim, and a bail was made from a piece of wire. The sap as it comes from the tree is clear and looks like water.

Collecting the Sap

Any container may be used to collect the sap. Buckets especially made for the purpose are also available commercially. I have used any clean, metal container that I could get ahold of. The container may be fastened to the spile hook through a hole punched with a nail below the container rim, or a wire bail may be readily made and fastened to the container through two holes punched opposite each other below the rim (Figure 3). I prefer to use bails because the containers do not necessarily nest into each other as commercial bail-less ones do, and I can carry several empty ones in one hand by using their bails.

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Figure 4: Our sap generally begins to flow about noon. We empty the containers at mid-afternoon and sundown into larger collecting buckets. These white plastic buckets are 3-1/2 gallon capacity.

Depending on the size of the sap containers and the rate of sap flow for the day, you may have to visit your maples once or twice in the afternoon. Bring along large collecting buckets. We use three to five gallon plastic buckets with snap-on lids (Figure 4). If you have a lot of sap to collect, carrying these large buckets filled with sap can be hard on one’s shoulders, back or elbows. If you do not have a tractor, truck or team to bring in the daily sap, use a wooden yoke over your shoulders.

From Sap to Syrup

Once the sap has been brought in, syrup making can commence. All sap should be strained to remove debris and insects. We used milk filters. Strained sap may be boiled in any container, but to be efficient it is best to use a flat pan filled three to four inches in depth with sap. If done in the home kitchen, steam from the evaporating sap can be damaging to woodwork and painted surfaces in the immediate area.

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Figure 5: We partly buried a small logwood stove in the floor of an outdoor shed to reduce radiation of heat from stove. We removed the stovetop lids and exposed the entire bottom of the broaster pan (evaporator) to the fire. We kept the sap at a rolling boil and periodically added warmed sap (in bucket behind stove pipe) to maintain a 3-inch level in the pan. A piece of plywood was propped up a couple of feet away to protect the stove from chilling breezes.

One of the problems in making maple syrup outdoors on a small scale, is to be able to maintain a rolling boil in the syrup pan. If you use part of your barn, implement shed or wood shed, try to set up some form of protection from cold winds blowing on the stove (Figure 5). Be sure to keep all inflammables (hay, straw, oil, gas, etc.) away from the area where the sap is to be evaporated. On a larger scale, a “sugar shed” is constructed especially for this purpose.

As the sap boils, water is evaporated and the sugar concentration relative to the sap volume increases. The level of the boiling sap will drop slowly during evaporation and more sap will need to be added periodically. Too much cold sap added to the boiling pan will quell the boil. You have to learn to judge the correct amount to add for the size of the pan. We used a large turkey roaster pan. Allowing the fire to go to embers before more wood is added will also put down the boil. The sap should continually boil. We learned that by putting freshly gathered cold sap into large metal pots, pans or buckets on our wood stove inside the house, we could raise the temperature to near boiling, effect some evaporation and kill the yeasts and bacteria that sour sap if it sits around for a day or two during warm days.

Outside in our “sugar shed” we kept a large metal bucket warming next to the stove pipe of the log-wood stove we used for evaporation. We ladled hot sap from this bucket into the boiling syrup pan. Periodically we filled this bucket with the hot sap from the stove in the house. In this manner no cold sap was poured directly into the boiling syrup, and we had no difficulty maintaining a rolling boil.

Dependent upon your vigilance in maintaining a rolling boil, accomplished only by judicious care of the fire, the amount of firewood you will burn to produce a given quantity of syrup will approximate one cord of wood to about 25 gallons of syrup. Richard Lamore (in Thompson, Syrup Trees, 1978, p. 50) estimates one cord per 28 gallons of syrup.

It is difficult to determine the amount of time needed to evaporate a given amount of syrup to sap. There are many factors of the environment that bear upon this, such as air temperature, wind and of course the sugar content of the sap. On the average, midwestern and northeastern maple syrup producers evaporate 55 gallons of sap to produce one gallon of syrup. This figure is for the industry at large. The sugar content of individual trees may vary from as little as 1.5% to as high as 7%. The average is about 2.5%. Our Big-leaf maples have given us a ratio of 38 gallons of sap to one gallon of syrup. This is a higher yield than the sugar maple, but it is not surprising, since the Big-leaf maple has the greatest leaf area of all maples to use in photo-synthesis (making sugar from carbon dioxide and sunlight) and has a longer growing season in most northwestern regions, than midwestern and northeastern maples.

As the clear sap slowly evaporates to syrup, it will begin to take on a light brown color, and it will now readily boil up into foamy froth that must be controlled. It is critical at this stage to know when you do, in fact, have syrup. A candy thermometer will work very well. First determine the temperature at which water boils in your area. This will vary depending upon barometric pressure. It may boil at 209°F or at 212°F. Simply add 7°F to whatever temperature at which water boils in your area, and when the candy thermometer registers that summed temperature, you have syrup. Syrup that has been boiled beyond 219°F becomes dark brown and strong-flavored. Some home syrup makers judge when syrup is ready to bottle by the way it looks and runs. Bailey (in Small Farmer’s Journal, Fall, 1981, page 67) writes of the way syrup “aprons” off a ladle when ready to draw off (Figure 6).

Syrup From Oregons Big-Leaf Maple

Figure 6: The finished batch of syrup is light amber in color and weighs eleven pounds to the gallon. As some have said, “The test of syrup is in its taste.”

Although the sap was filtered at the outset, the syrup now will have to be filtered again since different ingredients of the sap have crystallized into a sandy substance referred to in the trade as “sugar sand.” This will plug milk filters quickly, and it is best to use commercially available maple syrup filters, flannel or felt if one is to have clear syrup with nothing to settle in the bottom of the jar. We poured the boiling syrup into a metal bucket, brought it to the house to filter, and bottled it in sterilized pint jars. We then processed the filled pint jars in a steam canner as double insurance against spoilage. High quality syrup is amber colored and weighs 11 pounds to the gallon.

End-Season Cleanup

Maple syrup is a farm crop, whether made from sap of wild grown trees or maples planted as in an orchard. A paramount concern is for a long productive life for the tree. Maples are not pruned to increase production, but decay of the wood should be prevented in the region of the tree where holes were drilled. After sap ceases flowing for the season, all spiles should be removed and the holes disinfected with a 1 to 10 solution of Clorox. Use a plastic squirt bottle. The holes will heal by themselves within a couple of years. All equipment used should be thoroughly cleaned with a detergent solution, rinsed and put away dry.

Tools, Equipment and Supplies Needed

  • Hatchet
  • Pruning shears
  • Brace
  • 7/16″ wood bit
  • Knife, tapered & pointed
  • Spiles
  • Spile driver
  • Hammer
  • Buckets or tin cans
  • Wire for bails
  • Candy thermometer
  • Pliers with sidecutters
  • 16d common wire nail or punch
  • Large roaster pan with lid
  • Log-burner stove
  • Firewood, split 2″ x 3″, dry
  • Plastic squirt bottle
  • Chlorine bleach (1.10 water)
  • Dipper
  • Slotted spoon
  • Flannel filters
  • Canning jars & lids

References

Agricultural Extension Service, University of Minnesota. 1974. Information on how to collect maple syrup and make maple syrup. St. Paul, Minnesota.

Bailey, L. H. 1907. Maple sugar and maple syrup. Reprinted from Cyclopedia of American Agriculture in Small Farmer’s Journal, Fall, 1981, Vol. 5, No. 4: 64-67.

Domico, Terry 1979. We make sweet syrup from Pacific Northwest trees. Mother Earth News. No. 55 (Jan/Feb): 65.

Kappel-Smith, Diana 1982. Pipeline in the sugarbush. Country Journal, Vol. IX, No. 2 (Feb): 66-74.

Nearing, Helen & Scott, 1950. The Maple Sugar Book. Schocken Books, New York.

Nickerson, Nancy 1982. Box Elder syrup. Organic Gardening. Vol 29, No. 2 (Feb): 126-128.

Pieper, Ruth 1975. We make our own maple syntp. Organic Gardening and Farming. Vol. 22, No. 1 (Jan): 78-80.

Seymour, John 1976. The Guide to Self-Sufficiency. Popular Mechanics Books, New York.

Thompson, Bruce 1978. Syrup Trees. Walnut Press, PO Box 17210, Fountain Hills, AZ 85268.

U.S. Department of Agriculture 1965. Maple Syrup Producers Manual. Agriculture Handbook No. 134. Washington: Government Printing Office. Revised Ed.

Wilson, Barbara H. 1982. Tapping the Front Yard Maple. Organic Gardening. Vol. 29, No. 2 (Feb) 122-125.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Wheel Hoe

The Wheel Hoe: A Tool For Shallow Tillage

When we bought this little farm I soon realized I needed a wheel hoe. The size of the horse and tractor dictated space wasting wide rows in crop production and, to some degree, so does my two wheeled tractor.

An Efficient, Economical Barn

by:
from issue:

A well thought out, functional barn should be the center piece of any farming endeavor, horse powered or fossil fueled, that involves livestock. After building and using two previous barns during our lifetimes, I think the one we now have has achieved a level of convenience, efficiency, and economy that is worth passing on.

Happs Plowing A Chance to Share

Happ’s Plowing: A Chance to Share

by:
from issue:

Dinnertime rolled around before we could get people and horses off the field so that results of judging could be announced. I learned a lot that day, one thing being that people were there to share; not many took the competition side of the competition very seriously. Don Anderson of Toledo, WA was our judge — with a tough job handed to him. Everyone was helping each other so he had to really stay on his toes to know who had done what on the various plots.

Ask A Teamster Tongue Length

Ask A Teamster: Tongue Length

My forecart pole is set up for draft horses. My husband thinks we should cut the pole off to permanently make it fit better to these smaller horses. What would be your opinion? Like your husband, my preference would be a shorter tongue for a small team like your Fjords. The dynamics and efficiency of draft are better if we have our horse(s) close to the load. A shorter tongue will also reduce the overall length of your outfit, thereby giving you better maneuverability and turning dynamics.

Ask A Teamster Perfect Hitching Tension

Ask A Teamster: Perfect Hitching Tension

In my experience, determining how tight, or loose, to hook the traces when hitching a team can be a bit challenging for beginners. This is because a number of interdependent dynamics and variables between the pulling system and the holdback system must be considered, and because it’s ultimately a judgment call rather than a simple measurement or clear cut rule.

McCormick-Deering Potato Digger

McCormick-Deering Potato Digger

from issue:

McCormick Deering (eventually International Harvestor) made what many believe to be one of the outstanding potato digger models. This post features the text and illustrations from the original manufacturer’s setup and operation literature, handed to the new owners upon purchase. This implement, pulled by two horses or a small suitable tractor, dug up the taters and conveyed them up an inclined, rattling chain which shook off most of the dirt and laid the crop on top of the ground for collection

New Buggy Gear Design

New Buggy Gear Design

by:
from issue:

As long back as most of us can remember, the plain people were using buggies for transportation. Buggy frames were mounted atop wood wheels that turned on large solid steel axles. Today, more new technology is available for buggies. Torsion axles, fiberglass and steel wheels, hydraulic disc brakes, LED lights, and sealed batteries — the list could continue.

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

by: ,
from issue:

It is now possible to purchase a make of machine to suit almost any condition if the money is available. There is no doubt that eventually they will be quite generally used. However, the dry farmers are at present hard pressed financially and in many instances the purchase of very much machinery is out of the question. For the man of small means or limited acreage, a homemade implement may be utilized at least temporarily.

Disc Harrow Requirements

Disc Harrow Requirements

by:
from issue:

One of the most important requirements is disc blade concavity, that is, correct concavity. Further along we set forth the purposes of disc concavity. We feel it is important enough to devote the extra time and words in a discussion of the subject, because seldom is disc concavity talked about, and very few know that there is difference enough to cause good and bad work.

New Idea Manure Spreaders

New Idea Manure Spreaders

from issue:

There is no fixed method of loading. The best results are usually obtained by starting to load at the front end, especially in long straw manure. To get good results do not pile any manure into the cylinders. The height of the load depends upon the condition of the manure, the condition and nature of the field. Do not put on extra side boards. Be satisfied with the capacity of the machine and do not abuse it. Overloading will be the cause of loss of time sooner or later.

Bobsled Building Plans

Bobsled Building Plans

Here are two, old-style, heavy-duty, bobsled building plans featuring the sort of sleds you might have found in New England and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. (In fact you might get lucky and find them still.) These are designed to haul cord wood on the sled frame.

Permanent Corncribs

A short piece on the construction of corncribs.

Timber Wagon

Timber Wagon: The ÖSTERBY SMEDJA SV5 Forwarder

New equipment for draft horse use in silviculture (growing trees) is commercialized in Sweden at present by five companies, mainly specialized in forwarders and logging arches. This equipment is primarily adapted to the needs of forest enterprises in Scandinavia. Thus the forwarders are designed for short and small wood, for loading via hydraulic crane or an electric winch, or for manual loading without tools. This equipment is also adapted to the local topographical conditions. The rocky forests require strong off-road capabilities.

New Horse-drawn Side Delivery Rakes from Europe

New Horse-drawn Side Delivery Rakes from Europe

In Northern Italy the two agricultural machinery manufacturers MAINARDI A. s.r.l. and REPOSSI Macchine Agricole s.r.l. produce a vast range of haying equipment with pto and hydraulic drive, also hay rakes with mechanical drive by the rear wheels. The majority of the sold machines of this type are currently used with small tractors and motor cultivators. The technology of these rakes is based on implements which were developed in the 1940s, when animal traction still played an important role in Italy’s agriculture.

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

by:
from issue:

The scoop has two steel sides about 5 feet apart sitting on steel runners made out of heavy 2 X 2 angle iron, there is a blade that is lowered and raised by use of a foot release which allows the weight of the blade to lower it and then lock in the down position and the forward motion of the horses to raise it and lock it in the up position. This is accomplished by a clever pivoting action where the tongue attaches to the snow scoop.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

by:
from issue:

To select a Model 8, 10 or 10A for rebuilding, if you have a few to choose from – All New Idea spreaders have the raised words New Idea, Coldwater, Ohio on the bull gear. The No. 8 is being rebuilt in many areas due to the shortage of 10A’s and because they are still very popular. The 10A is the most recent of the spreaders and all three can be rebuilt. The 10 and 10A are the most popular for rebuilding as parts are available for putting these spreaders back into use.

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

Horsedrawn No-Till Garlic

We were inspired to try no-tilling vegetables into cover crops after attending the Groffs’ field day in 1996. No-tilling warm season vegetables has proved problematic at our site due to the mulch of cover crop residues keeping the soil too cool and attracting slugs. We thought that no-tilling garlic into this cover crop of oats and Canadian field peas might be the ticket as garlic seems to appreciate being mulched.

Walsh No Buckle Harness

from issue:

When first you become familiar with North American working harness you might come to the erroneous conclusion that, except for minor style variations, all harnesses are much the same. While quality and material issues are accounting for substantive differences in the modern harness, there were also interesting and important variations back in the early twentieth century which many of us today either have forgotten or never knew about. Perhaps the most significant example is the Walsh No Buckle Harness.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT