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The Farm & Bakery Wagon
The Farm & Bakery Wagon

One of the hardest things about farmers market duty for an active horse is remaining “parked” for such a length of time, when that’s not part of your regular routine. We brought our own hitching post into town and locked the wheels with straps (you can see one underneath the wagon).

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

by Erik Andrus of Vergennes, VT

In 2010 I completed a fun project that I’d had in mind for a while, a commercial horse-drawn van expressly designed to sell produce and bread. The intended purpose of the vehicle was to bring the working animal (back) to the streets of Vergennes and to show that living horsepower is an effective means of bringing local goods to market.

I believe we succeeded on both counts, but in the end I had to conclude that the day of the horsedrawn wagon has not yet come. I had enough near-misses in traffic to satisfy my adrenaline cravings for quite a while. Not through any fault of the horse, mind you. Bobby learned to ply the streets quite well! But the unpredictable behavior of motorists around our slow-moving rig was just too stressful. The bakery wagon will still hit the streets for special occasions, but will otherwise wait patiently for the time when horsedrawn transport of goods becomes a sane, safer, and economical option.

All this notwithstanding, the wagon itself is kind of nifty. Making it was a lot of fun, and allowed me to bring together my past working with wood and my present working with animals! This page will give you a little whirlwind tour of how we went about making it. If you are in the market for a commercial horsedrawn vehicle as awesome as this, give me a call. I would love to make another one!

Our wagon was based on a historic bakery wagon plan drawn by John Thompson. This fellow made scale drawings and built models of working vehicles in the 20’s and 30’s when cars and trucks were beginning to render them obsolete. The Thompson archives include all sorts of vehicles, passenger conveyances, furniture delivery vans, fire engines, hearses, water tankers, and so on. I liked this particular design because it seemed just the right size for the quantity of goods we would normally bring to a farmers market anyway, using our car.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

Here is the antique running gear we used for the wagon. It came from an antique open-bed market wagon in New Hampshire, and was already set up for shafts and had the long “market wagon” style springs you can see here. The box was shot, but despite having been used as a business ornament for years, about half of the wooden parts and three out of four of the wheels were still in good shape.

The first step was to decide on an appropriate chassis, or “running gear.” Eventually I chose to go with the real deal, a wooden-wheeled gear with leaf springs rather than pneumatic tires. Wooden wheels last forever with care and are functional and look the part. I bought an antique delivery wagon that had been left outdoors as an ornament. I was able to reuse some of the wheels and wooden parts of the running gear. I ordered two new wheels from Witmer Coach Shop (very good and affordable) and rebuilt the running gear with many custom made wooden parts.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The principal frame members for the van box are laid upside-down on the workbench. It is important to have the proper amount of height on the side rails to ensure that the box has proper clearance from the wheels.

Above you can see the frame, upside down, that connects to the leaf springs and supports the wagon box. The box (upper part) of the wagon is only connected to the wheels via springs.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

This project gave me a chance to indulge in my favorite kind of joinery, and to use some old and treasured tools.

Above is a frame part in the vise, being tenoned for joining. I used traditional mortise and tenon joinery throughout the project for maximum strength. The frame members were all made of solid, locally cut and milled ash. I did, however, deviate from traditional methods by using plywood for the deck, sides, and roof, and for the panels. This made for a cheaper and stronger wagon. In total I used one sheet of 1/4” oak plywood for panels, four sheets of 3/8” AC fir plywood, and one sheet of 3/4” CDX for the deck.

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Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Pferdestarke

German Version of Horse Progress Days: Pferdestark

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from issue:

There is a rather neat phrase in German – ‘wenn schon, denn schon’ – which literally translates as ‘enough already, then already;’ but what it actually means is ‘if a something is worth doing, it is worth doing well. That would be a fitting description of Pferdestark, the German version of Horse Progress Days. For sheer variety of different breeds of draught horses, regional and national harness styles, or for that matter, languages or hats, it would be hard to beat Pferdestark.

Blacksmith Forge Styles

Blacksmith Forge Styles

from issue:

Blacksmith Forge Styles circa 1920.

Farm Drum 26 John Deere Grain Binders

Farm Drum #26: John Deere Grain Binders

by:

Friend and Auctioneer Dennis Turmon told us about a couple of John Deere Grain Binders he has in an upcoming auction, and we couldn’t wait to take a look. On a blustery Central Oregon day (sorry about the wind noise), Lynn takes us on a guided tour of the PTO and Ground-Drive versions of this important implement.

Cockshutt Plow Found in Alberta

Cockshutt Plow Found in Alberta!

Dale Befus introduced me to a plow I had not set eyes on before, most unusual affair though Dale assures me not uncommon in Alberta, this implement is a beam-hung riding plow (wheels hang from the beam) as versus the frame-hung units (where the beam hangs under the wheel-supported frame).

Cultivating Questions The Cost of Working Horses

Cultivating Questions: The Cost of Working Horses

Thanks to the many resources available in the new millennium, it is relatively easy for new and transitioning farmers to learn the business of small-scale organic vegetable production. Economic models of horse-powered market gardens, however, are still few and far between. To fill that information hole, I asked three experienced farmers to join me in tracking work horse hours, expenses and labor over a two-year period and to share the results in the Small Farmer’s Journal.

A Step Back in Time with the Barron Tree Planter

A Step Back in Time with the Barron Tree Planter

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from issue:

The 18th century saw a tremendous interest in landscaping private parkland on a grand scale with the movement of entire hills and mature trees, all by man and horse power, to fulfill the designs of celebrated gardeners such as Capability Brown. In the mid 1800s the movement of mature trees was revolutionised by the introduction of the Barron tree transplanter. The first planter was designed and built by Barron for the transplantation of maturing trees at Elvaston Castle in Derbyshire.

LittleField Notes Mower Notes

LittleField Notes: Mower Notes

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from issue:

The horse drawn mowing machine is a marvel of engineering. Imagine a pair of horses turning the energy of their walking into a reciprocal cutting motion able to drop acres of forage at a time without ever burning a drop of fossil fuel. And then consider that the forage being cut will fuel the horses that will in turn cut next year’s crop. What a beautiful concept! Since I’ve been mowing some everyday I’ve had lots of time to think about the workings of these marvelous machines.

Haying With Horses

Hitching Horses To A Mower

When hitching to the mower, first make sure it’s on level ground and out of gear. The cutter bar should be fastened up in the vertical or carrier position. This is for safety of all people in attendance during hitching.

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

Box Jaw Tongs & the Cow Poop Theory of Blacksmithing

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from issue:

Making a pair of tongs was a milestone for a lot of blacksmiths. In times gone past a Journeyman Smith meant just that, a smith that went upon a journey to learn more skills before taking a masters test. When the smith appeared at the door of a prospective employer, he/she would be required to demonstrate their skills. A yard stick for this was to make a pair of tongs.

McCormick-Deering No 7 Mower Manual in English & French

McCormick-Deering No. 7 Mower Manual in English & French

Instructions for Setting Up and Operating the McCORMICK-DEERING No. 7 VERTICAL LIFT TWO-HORSE MOWERS — Instructions pour le Montage et le Fonctionnement des FAUCHEUSES A DEUX CHEVAUX McCORMICK-DEERING No. 7 À RELEVAGE VERTICAL

Stationary Baler

Stationary Baler: Engineering and Evidence

Our friend, Mark Schwarzburg came by the office with an old wooden box he inherited from his great great great grandfather, Henry Schwarzburg. In it is a lovely, very old working wooden model of the stationary baler Henry helped to invent. Also were found, on old oil-skin paper, beautiful original engineer’s drawings for patent registry; and a brochure for the actual resulting manufactured implement.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

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from issue:

Over the last few years of making hay, the mowing, turning and making tripods has settled into a fairly comfortable pattern, but the process of getting it all together for the winter is still developing. In the beginning I did what everyone else around here does and got it baled, but one year I decided to try one small stack. The success of this first stack encouraged me to do more, and now most of my hay is stacked loose.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

by:
from issue:

The first step was to decide on an appropriate chassis, or “running gear.” Eventually I chose to go with the real deal, a wooden-wheeled gear with leaf springs rather than pneumatic tires. Wooden wheels last forever with care and are functional and look the part. I bought an antique delivery wagon that had been left outdoors as an ornament. I was able to reuse some of the wheels and wooden parts of the running gear.

Sleds

Sleds

by:
from issue:

The remainder of this section on Agricultural Implements is about homemade equipment for use with draft animals. These implements are all proven and serviceable. They are easily worked by a single animal weighing 1,000 pounds, and probably a good deal less. Sleds rate high on our homestead. They can be pulled over rough terrain. They do well traversing slopes. Being low to the ground, they are very easy to load up.

I Built My Own Buckrake

I Built My Own Buckrake

by:
from issue:

One of the fun things about horse farming is the simplicity of many of the machines. This opens the door for tinkerers like me to express themselves. Sometimes it is just plain nice to take a proven design and build one of your own. Last spring I did just that. I built my own buckrake. I’m proud of the fact that it worked as it should and that my rudimentary carpentry skills produced it.

New Idea Manure Spreaders

New Idea Manure Spreaders

from issue:

There is no fixed method of loading. The best results are usually obtained by starting to load at the front end, especially in long straw manure. To get good results do not pile any manure into the cylinders. The height of the load depends upon the condition of the manure, the condition and nature of the field. Do not put on extra side boards. Be satisfied with the capacity of the machine and do not abuse it. Overloading will be the cause of loss of time sooner or later.

Farm Drum 25 Two-Way Plow

Farm Drum #25: Two-Way Plow

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Lynn Miller and Ed Joseph discuss the merits of the two-way plow, what to look for when considering purchase, and a little bit of the history of this unique IH / P&O model.

Journal Guide