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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

The Farm & Bakery Wagon
The Farm & Bakery Wagon

One of the hardest things about farmers market duty for an active horse is remaining “parked” for such a length of time, when that’s not part of your regular routine. We brought our own hitching post into town and locked the wheels with straps (you can see one underneath the wagon).

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

by Erik Andrus of Vergennes, VT

In 2010 I completed a fun project that I’d had in mind for a while, a commercial horse-drawn van expressly designed to sell produce and bread. The intended purpose of the vehicle was to bring the working animal (back) to the streets of Vergennes and to show that living horsepower is an effective means of bringing local goods to market.

I believe we succeeded on both counts, but in the end I had to conclude that the day of the horsedrawn wagon has not yet come. I had enough near-misses in traffic to satisfy my adrenaline cravings for quite a while. Not through any fault of the horse, mind you. Bobby learned to ply the streets quite well! But the unpredictable behavior of motorists around our slow-moving rig was just too stressful. The bakery wagon will still hit the streets for special occasions, but will otherwise wait patiently for the time when horsedrawn transport of goods becomes a sane, safer, and economical option.

All this notwithstanding, the wagon itself is kind of nifty. Making it was a lot of fun, and allowed me to bring together my past working with wood and my present working with animals! This page will give you a little whirlwind tour of how we went about making it. If you are in the market for a commercial horsedrawn vehicle as awesome as this, give me a call. I would love to make another one!

Our wagon was based on a historic bakery wagon plan drawn by John Thompson. This fellow made scale drawings and built models of working vehicles in the 20’s and 30’s when cars and trucks were beginning to render them obsolete. The Thompson archives include all sorts of vehicles, passenger conveyances, furniture delivery vans, fire engines, hearses, water tankers, and so on. I liked this particular design because it seemed just the right size for the quantity of goods we would normally bring to a farmers market anyway, using our car.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

Here is the antique running gear we used for the wagon. It came from an antique open-bed market wagon in New Hampshire, and was already set up for shafts and had the long “market wagon” style springs you can see here. The box was shot, but despite having been used as a business ornament for years, about half of the wooden parts and three out of four of the wheels were still in good shape.

The first step was to decide on an appropriate chassis, or “running gear.” Eventually I chose to go with the real deal, a wooden-wheeled gear with leaf springs rather than pneumatic tires. Wooden wheels last forever with care and are functional and look the part. I bought an antique delivery wagon that had been left outdoors as an ornament. I was able to reuse some of the wheels and wooden parts of the running gear. I ordered two new wheels from Witmer Coach Shop (very good and affordable) and rebuilt the running gear with many custom made wooden parts.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The principal frame members for the van box are laid upside-down on the workbench. It is important to have the proper amount of height on the side rails to ensure that the box has proper clearance from the wheels.

Above you can see the frame, upside down, that connects to the leaf springs and supports the wagon box. The box (upper part) of the wagon is only connected to the wheels via springs.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

This project gave me a chance to indulge in my favorite kind of joinery, and to use some old and treasured tools.

Above is a frame part in the vise, being tenoned for joining. I used traditional mortise and tenon joinery throughout the project for maximum strength. The frame members were all made of solid, locally cut and milled ash. I did, however, deviate from traditional methods by using plywood for the deck, sides, and roof, and for the panels. This made for a cheaper and stronger wagon. In total I used one sheet of 1/4” oak plywood for panels, four sheets of 3/8” AC fir plywood, and one sheet of 3/4” CDX for the deck.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The front of the wagon is coming together. The construction is basically a series of strong frames. The two front most feature cabinet-like panels. The driver’s bench seat has not yet been added. You can see the arc of the top side rail that will define the shape of the roof.

The plywood floor and sides are bound in a hardwood frame so that all the ply edges are embedded in hardwood. The square opening is a little door behind the driver’s head. The piece of hardwood projecting toward you, top center of the picture above, suggest the future curve of the roof. The roofline has a compound curve over in the front, sloping forward and to each side, kind of difficult to execute with plywood, but not impossible!

You can also see in the back of the wagon a hole where the rear flashers will go. It is a very basic electrical system.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

Up on sawhorses, the frame is coming together. All these pieces are made of solid ash. The rectangular opening is a little cargo window that was a feature of the original historical design.

The woodwork for the footboards, bench, doors, and structural roof and wall members was all done in solid ash, planed smooth by hand planes and spokeshaves. Some of the decorative details in the frame are my own take on the original drawings. All together the design provides good headroom in the cargo area (ceiling just under 5 feet in the center) and strong resistance to racking, or coming out of square while lurching on the road.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

Above, you can see that the roof plywood over the driver’s head has been cut into “fingers.” Using some high school geometry we were able to get a satisfactory compound curve, as you can see.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

One twist I gave to the original design was to use 1/2″ AC plywood panels in lieu of tongue and groove boards. For the side panels, the design uses all the width and most of the length of a piece of ply. We sanded and coated with about five coats of oil-base paint before installing them.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The box is now fully assembled and ready to be attached to the running gear. The roof is covered with canvas that has been saturated with many coats of oil paint.

The box is now assembled. The yellow side panels have five coats of enamel, and the ash and oak members have about the same number of coats of varnish. The roof plywood has been covered with canvas which is then impregnated with many coats of oil paint, rendering it waterproof. The bench seat is hinged and allows for quite a bit of storage inside. The car battery that powers the flasher lights is strapped in there too. It’s easy to flip up the lid and recharge as necessary.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

Apprentice Tristan Fulford attaches the running gear to the frame with some stout lag bolts. The wooden clamps are compressing the springs together to facilitate attachment to the frame.

Altogether the box weighs maybe 500 lbs now and is getting less fun to move around. You can see, above, apprentice Tristan Fulford (2010) installing the running gear onto the bottom of the wagon, which we have flipped up onto its back for the purpose. The wheels are left off of the running gear for now to make it lighter. Once we had the running gear secure we attached the wheels and it was just about ready to roll.

We noticed early on that the springs were insufficient for the weight of the van box, which tended to list excessively with the weight of cargo in the back or passengers in the front. Bailey Spring and Chassis made us up four new leaves which stiffened the suspension quite well, and lifted the box to about the height at which it was designed to ride.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

We hand-lettered the side of the wagon with brushes. The result is not as crisp as a printed letter but it is fitting. My brother-in-law Adam Hurwitz designed the graphic.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

We made a system of crates and shelves to make the most of the cargo area. Two big coolers can fit in the remaining space. We had a local welder make a nice steel step for the cargo door. Our basic electrical system powers rear flashers and a cargo dome light.

Above, you can see the interior storage system, which allows us to transport 150 pastries, 80 loaves, and several boxes of produce, and two coolers of frozen meat to market. We can’t fit as much stuff in the car! Unlike a station wagon, which is all curves and wheel wells in the back, a horsedrawn van is a perfect match for the cargo it carries. The pine crates are even held on the shelves with a lip, so they do not dislodge on even the bumpiest ride. Every crate has good clearance and ventilation, as well.

You can also see the dome light lit up inside and one of the flasher taillights. The footman loop to the left of the door is reforged from the antique wagon from which the running gear came.

A wagon like this can be set up with either a pole (for two horses or sometimes more) or shafts (for a single horse). Wanting to keep things as simple as possible in traffic, I went with shafts. Last photo, you can see the wagon returning to the farm with my Dante the Dog running escort, and me, my brother-in-law Adam Hurwitz, and my son Julien riding in the cab. With the mirrors, the driver has good visibility both over the horse and to the rear of the vehicle, yet is still pretty well protected from the elements.

Once he’d gotten the hang of it, Bobby the Horse found it easy enough to trot all the way to the Vergennes green (1.5 miles) with a full load. Over time he was able to deal with his apprehension about two weird things he never encounters on-farm: pedestrian crosswalks and railroad tracks.

We had many admiring and appreciative comments from friends and neighbors. The project took many hours and cost about $2000 in materials. If I were to build a similar one on commission, it would probably cost around $4500.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

After a visit to town, the bakery wagon returns to the farm. Dante, our English Shepherd, escorts us in.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

McCormick-Deering Potato Digger

McCormick-Deering Potato Digger

from issue:

McCormick Deering (eventually International Harvestor) made what many believe to be one of the outstanding potato digger models. This post features the text and illustrations from the original manufacturer’s setup and operation literature, handed to the new owners upon purchase. This implement, pulled by two horses or a small suitable tractor, dug up the taters and conveyed them up an inclined, rattling chain which shook off most of the dirt and laid the crop on top of the ground for collection

Spring Tooth Cultivator Equi Idea Canadese

Spring Tooth Cultivator EQUI IDEA Canadese

Based and inspired by old small french-made cultivators called “Canadien”, the modern version of the Italian “Canadese” revives all the characteristics of this very popular tool amongst smallholders of the bygone times. The Canadese particularly suits, with its light weight and handy construction, small gardens or vegetable fields, especially in hilly or terraced landscapes, where the area for maneuvering at the headlands is limited, requiring that the implement has to be moved often by hand.

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

by: ,
from issue:

It is now possible to purchase a make of machine to suit almost any condition if the money is available. There is no doubt that eventually they will be quite generally used. However, the dry farmers are at present hard pressed financially and in many instances the purchase of very much machinery is out of the question. For the man of small means or limited acreage, a homemade implement may be utilized at least temporarily.

New Idea Manure Spreaders

New Idea Manure Spreaders

from issue:

There is no fixed method of loading. The best results are usually obtained by starting to load at the front end, especially in long straw manure. To get good results do not pile any manure into the cylinders. The height of the load depends upon the condition of the manure, the condition and nature of the field. Do not put on extra side boards. Be satisfied with the capacity of the machine and do not abuse it. Overloading will be the cause of loss of time sooner or later.

Posts

Driving Fence Posts By Hand

Where the soil is soft, loose, and free from stone, posts may be driven more easily and firmly than if set in holes dug for the purpose.

Pferdestarke

German Version of Horse Progress Days: Pferdestark

by:
from issue:

There is a rather neat phrase in German – ‘wenn schon, denn schon’ – which literally translates as ‘enough already, then already;’ but what it actually means is ‘if a something is worth doing, it is worth doing well. That would be a fitting description of Pferdestark, the German version of Horse Progress Days. For sheer variety of different breeds of draught horses, regional and national harness styles, or for that matter, languages or hats, it would be hard to beat Pferdestark.

A Hidden Treasure

A Hidden Treasure

When David and Gus visited Mr. Hemmett they had an unexpected find. Not only was there the small tip-cart but other full sized farm wagons. The first that David looked at was a double shafted Lincolnshire wagon designed for the flat lands of that county and too big and heavy for his Suffolk mare of 16.2 hands. But tucked at the back under a tarpaulin was the ideal vehicle – a Norfolk wagon that could take either a single or double shaft and was suitable for the smaller draught horse.

Fjordworks Cultural Evolution Part 2

Fjordworks: Cultural Evolution Part 2

For more than ten years we cultivated our market garden with the walk-behind cultivator. This past season we made the transition to the riding cultivator. I really enjoyed using this amazing implement. Our current team of Fjords are now mature animals (14 & 18 years old) and have been working together for 11 years, so they were certainly ready to work quietly and walk slowly enough to be effective with this precision tool.

New Horse-drawn Side Delivery Rakes from Europe

New Horse-drawn Side Delivery Rakes from Europe

In Northern Italy the two agricultural machinery manufacturers MAINARDI A. s.r.l. and REPOSSI Macchine Agricole s.r.l. produce a vast range of haying equipment with pto and hydraulic drive, also hay rakes with mechanical drive by the rear wheels. The majority of the sold machines of this type are currently used with small tractors and motor cultivators. The technology of these rakes is based on implements which were developed in the 1940s, when animal traction still played an important role in Italy’s agriculture.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 2

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 2

by:
from issue:

From reading the Small Farmers Journal, I knew that some people are equally happy with either model, but because McCormick Deering had gone to the trouble of developing the No. 9, it suggests they could see that there were improvements to be made on the No. 7. Even if the improvement was small, with a single horse any improvement was likely to increase my chance of success.

Amber Baker Letter

Hello from Michigan!

Dear Lynn Miller and staff, Hello from Michigan! We have only just started to read your Journal, and have really enjoyed it. First off, thank you for your publication. It is always a special occasion when the journal arrives, my favorite part would have to be when the seasoned farmer imparts some knowledge. Secondly, my dad is trying to figure out how to make a PTO forecart, but we are having difficulty finding information on people who have made their own, or what dimensions to make the cart out of and such.

Barbed Wire History and Varieties

Book Excerpt: The invention of barb wire was the most important event in the solution of the fence problem. The question of providing fencing material had become serious, even in the timbered portions of the country, while the great prairie region was almost wholly without resource, save the slow and expensive process of hedging. At this juncture came barb wire, which was at once seen to make a cheap, effective, and durable fence, rapidly built and easily moved.

International Harvester Fertilizer Distributor

International Harvester Fertilizer Distributor

from issue:

Because of the many varieties and mixtures of fertilizer, it is impossible to give complete tables listing them. It is, however, very easy to determine the distribution of any particular fertilizer by proceeding as follows. Put a cloth, or some large sheets of paper under the machine and turn the main driving wheel 57 times for 7′, 51 times for 8′ and 46 times for 9′ machine. Weigh the amount ejected which will indicate the amount distributed per one-tenth of an acre.

McCormick-Deering No 7 Mower Manual in English & French

McCormick-Deering No. 7 Mower Manual in English & French

Instructions for Setting Up and Operating the McCORMICK-DEERING No. 7 VERTICAL LIFT TWO-HORSE MOWERS — Instructions pour le Montage et le Fonctionnement des FAUCHEUSES A DEUX CHEVAUX McCORMICK-DEERING No. 7 À RELEVAGE VERTICAL

John Deere No 12A Combine

John Deere No. 12-A Straight-Through Combine

from issue:

It is only natural for the owner of a new combine to want to try his machine as early as possible. This results in most new combines being started in the field before the crop is ready for combining. As soon as a binder is seen in the neighbor’s field, the urge to start becomes uncontrollable. When grain is ready for binding, it is not ready for straight combining.

Cultivating Questions The Cost of Working Horses

Cultivating Questions: The Cost of Working Horses

Thanks to the many resources available in the new millennium, it is relatively easy for new and transitioning farmers to learn the business of small-scale organic vegetable production. Economic models of horse-powered market gardens, however, are still few and far between. To fill that information hole, I asked three experienced farmers to join me in tracking work horse hours, expenses and labor over a two-year period and to share the results in the Small Farmer’s Journal.

Mowing with Scythes

Mowing with Scythes

by:
from issue:

Scythes were used extensively in Europe and North America until the early 20th century, after which they went out of favor as farm mechanization took off. However, the scythe is gaining new interest among small farmers in the West who want to mow grass on an acre or two, and could be a useful tool for farmers in the Tropics who do not have the resources to buy expensive mowing equipment.

Ask A Teamster Neckyokes

Ask A Teamster: Neckyokes

I always chain or otherwise secure slip-on type neckyokes to the tongue so they don’t come off and cause an accident. Neckyokes unexpectedly coming off the tongue have caused countless problems, the likes of which have caused injuries, psychological damage, and even death to horses, and to people as well. Making sure the neckyoke is chained or otherwise secured to the tongue every time you hitch a team is a quick and easy way of eliminating a number of dangerous situations.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT