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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Swallow

Below is an excerpt from Farm Economy: Twelve Courses in Agriculture, published in 1916, explaining the merits of rotating crops.

“Introduction – Every farmer knows that when a crop is grown on the same field year after year, it becomes inferior in quality and the yield steadily diminishes. For many years this was attributed to soil exhaustion- to the actual using up of the elements of fertility in the soil. We now know that this deterioration is not due to soil depletion alone, but to the attacks of fungi and moulds also.

Potatoes grown continuously on the same soil become infected with potato scab and all the various kinds of rots. These rots and scab organisms live through the winter in the soil and multiply with every crop until at length the field must be given up. So wheat and barley and oats transmit many similar moulds and fungi to the soil, where they live and multiply with each succeeding crop.

Some fungi rot away the roots of the grain plant so that when the hot winds come in heading time, there are no roots left to carry water to the grain heads. These heads cannot then fill out properly, the tip becoming shriveled and shrunken. In the first wind storm, the straw, having no anchoring roots left, crinkles over to the ground. These fungi are the true cause of blights.

Other fungi content themselves with entering the plant and robbing it of the food which it has stored up for itself. The plant, thus deprived of its proper nourishment, cannot grow to its full size, or reach full maturity. The fungi which produce this stunted growth are called canker fungi, and a plant attacked by them is “cankered.”

In time the field becomes infested with thousands of these different fungi which lie, literally, in ambush in the old stubble and attack the young grain plants as soon as they emerge from their protecting seed-coats.

Blight

The Principle of Rotation – Where the fields are only moderately infected with fungi, moulds, and rusts, the best method of combating them is by crop rotation.

Fortunately for the farmer a given fungus can live only on its host, the plant upon which it is accustomed to feed. Very few fungi can attack more than one kind of a plant, and those which can are confined to close relationship with the host plant. Potato scab fungi cannot affect wheat; wheat fungi cannot affect corn; corn rot fungi cannot affect cotton. It is possible for some fungi to attack both wheat and barley, because they are rather closely related and their growth habits are similar. This knowledge gives us a good method for controlling diseases.

We have only to starve the fungi out by planting in succession a number of totally different crops. Very few fungi can live more than a year without their host, and if we keep their particular host plant off the field for two or three years by substituting other crops for it, their destruction is certain. Of course these other crops bring in their particular fungi, but these are starved out in the same manner.

Thus, if we plant corn on a field which has been devoted to clover, the clover fungi cannot live on the corn plants and so die. If we follow corn with a crop of wheat, the corn fungi cannot live on the wheat and so must die. If now we return to clover, the wheat fungi cannot live. The interval of three years between each successive crop insures in most cases the death of all its particular moulds and fungi. The greater the number of different crops in a rotation, the more completely are the fungi destroyed.

Profitable Rotations – Rotations, however, must be composed of profitable crops for the locality. Otherwise the prevention is rendered useless. As a general rule a complete rotation should consist of a year of cultivated crops to get rid of weeds and insects, and a year in grain. On heavy soils, the rotation should include a forage crop to be plowed under in the fall. On sandy soils, clovers, alfalfa, soy beans, vetch, or some similar legume should be given precedence in building up the soil. Cultivated crops can usually be grown for two successive years where profitable, because cultivation holds the fungi in check for a time and cleans the land of weeds. A four or five-year rotation of profitable crops, carefully handles, will improve the quality of all. More than this, is a legume is included, the crop fed on the farm, and the manure carefully handled, the soil will be build up rather than depleted, and the use of commercial fertilizer rendered almost unnecessary.

One of the most common ways of making rotation useless is by being careless about the straw used in manure. We cannot expect to rid our fields of wheat fungi if we spread wheat straw manure over the rest of the rotation. The same is true for all our grains. Do not put manure made from a certain kind of straw upon a field that is to produce that same crop, but put the manure on a field that is to grow some entirely different crop.”

Spotlight On: Livestock

Camel Power in Georgia

Camel Power in Georgia

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Last spring we got the bright idea to plow some corn with one of the camels, so we went to the shed and drug out the “Planet Jr. one camel cultivating plow”. My 86 year old Grandfather said “Son, don’t worry about thinning that corn, those camels are going to do a fine job of it, for you!” We plowed corn and I have some video to prove it, and as soon as I quit running over the corn and learned how to “drive the plow” we didn’t lose any more corn!

Cheval de Merens Revisited

Cheval de Merens Revisited

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In the Fall ’97 issue of SFJ you printed an article on the Cheval de Merens, the all black horse of the French Pyrenees. I was immediately obsessed by their beautiful stature, a very strong draft-type-looking horse with powerful legs and long flowing manes and tails. The article sent me running for maps to locate France and the Ariege Valley, the central location for the Merens. After making contact with the writer of the article and being told of the major Merens horse show in August, plane reservations were made.

Livestock and Predators No Easy Answers

Livestock and Predators: No Easy Answers

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Since we’ve raised sheep commercially, we’ve been committed to trying to live with the predators in our environment. Over the years, we’ve lost just a handful of sheep — several to coyotes, at least one each to mountain lions and rattlesnakes, and four in one night to a neighbor’s dog. Mostly, though, our commitment to nonlethal predator protection tools has worked. A combination of electric fencing, livestock guardian dogs, sheep selection and grazing management has allowed us to co-exist with the predators in our environment.

Step Ahead Horse Progress Days 2016

Step Ahead: 23rd Annual Horse Progress Days 2016

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I had only been to Horse Progress Days once before, at Mount Hope, Ohio in 2008. It had been an eye-opener, showing how strong and in touch with sustainable farming values the Amish are, and how innovative and sensible their efforts could be. So at the 23rd annual event in Howe, Indiana, I was there partly looking for signs of continuity, and partly for signs of change. Right off I spotted an Amish man with a Blue Tooth in his ear, talking as he walked along.

How To Dry Up A Doe Goat

How To Dry Up A Doe Goat

You are probably thinking why would I want to dry up a doe? If the plan is to rebreed the doe, then she will need time to rebuild her stamina. Milk production takes energy. Kid production takes energy, too. If the plan is to have a fresh goat in March, then toward the end of October start to dry her up. The first thing to do is cut back on her grain. Grain fuels milk production.

Ask A Teamster Horse Don't Won't Can't Turn

Ask A Teamster: Horse Don’t, Won’t, Can’t Turn

After moving the drop ring on the other side down we went out to the round pen for a test drive. The difference in how she ground drove and turned was amazing – not perfect, but real sweet. With the lines at that level a right turn cue on the line obviously meant go right to her, and a left turn cue meant left. After we drove around for a while with me smiling I couldn’t resist moving the drop rings back up to the line rings – Bam, back to the old confusion.

Developing Draft Colts

Developing Draft Colts

During October, 1910, The Pennsylvania State College and Experiment Station purchased a group of ten grade Belgian and Percheron colts and one pure bred Percheron for use in live stock judging classes. An accurate record of the initial cost, feeds consumed and changes in form has been kept in order that some definite information as to the cost of developing draft colts from weaning to maturity might be available for farmers, investigators and students.

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

Fjordworks: Zen and the Art of Training the Novice Teamster Part 2

In the practice of Zen sitting meditation, a special emphasis is placed on maintaining a relaxed but upright sitting posture, in which the vertical and horizontal axis of the body meet at a center point. Finding this core of gravity within can restore a sense of well-being and ease to the practitioner. This balanced seat of ease is not all that different from the state of relaxed concentration we need to achieve to effectively ride or drive horses.

Horseshoeing Part 3B

Horseshoeing Part 3B

Besides good, tough iron for the shoe, we need an anvil with a round horn and a small hole at one end, a round-headed turning-hammer, a round sledge, a stamping hammer, a pritchel of good steel, and, if a fullered shoe is to be made, a round fuller. Bodily activity and, above all else, a good eye for measurement are not only desirable, but necessary. A shoe should be made thoughtfully, but yet quickly enough to make the most of the heat.

The Milk and Human Kindness Stanchion Floor

The Milk and Human Kindness: Making Friends with Your Wild Heifer

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So let’s just say this is your first experience with cows, you’ve gone to your local dairy farm, purchased a beautiful bred heifer who is very skittish, has never had a rope on her, or been handled or led, and you’re making arrangements to bring her home. It ought to be dawning on you at this point that you need to safely and securely convey this heifer to your farm and then you need to keep her confined until she begins to calm down enough that she knows she’s home, and she knows where she gets fed.

Cattle Handling Part 2 Use Good Cow Sense When Handling Cattle

Cattle Handling Part 2: Use Good Cow Sense When Handling Cattle

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Cattle are very intelligent, and are just as “trainable” as horses. Like horses, they “reason” differently than humans. Understanding the way cattle think and why they react to you the way they do can enable you handle them in ways that will help rather than hinder your purposes. If you can “think like a cow” you can more readily predict what cattle will do in various situations and be able to handle them with fewer problems.

Changing of Seasons

LittleField Notes: Changing of Seasons

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We are blessed who are active participants in the life of soil and weather, crops and critters, living a life grounded in seasonal change. This talk of human connection to land and season is not just the rambling romantic musing of an agrarian ideologue. It is rather the result of participating in the deeply vital vocation that is farming and knowing its fruits first hand.

Boer Goats

Boer Goats

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The introduction of the Boer Goat has stirred up a lot of interest in all sectors of agriculture. The demand for goat meat exceeds the supply; goat meat is the most consumed meat in the world. One of the main points about South African Boer Goats is that out of all meat goat breeds the Boer is the top meat producer whereas in the cattle business you have over 100 breeds of beef cattle that all compete for the beef dollar.

Horseshoeing Part 4B

Horseshoeing Part 4B

Forging is that defect of the horse’s gait by reason of which, at a trot, he strikes the ends of the branches or the under surface of the front shoe with the toe of the hind shoe or hoof of the same side. Forging is unpleasant to hear and dangerous to the horse. It is liable to wound the heels of the forefeet, damages the toes or the coronet of the hind hoofs, and often pulls off the front shoes.

Goat Lessons

Goat Lessons

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Goats are one of the most incredible homestead animals. They are usually affectionate and sweet, with such funny and smart personalities. Goats give so much goodness for the amount of hay and grain they eat. One cow weighs 1,000 lbs. or more and gives 4-8 gallons of milk a day. One goat weighs around 130 lbs. and gives around a gallon — can you see the difference in feed conversion?

Ask A Teamster Ten Common Wrecks With Driving Horses

Ask A Teamster: Ten Common Wrecks with Driving Horses

One of the things I’ve learned over time is that the truly great teamsters rarely – if ever – have upset horses, close calls, mishaps or wrecks, while the less meticulous horsemen often do. Even though it may take a few minutes longer, the master teamsters constantly follow a series of seemingly minute, endlessly detailed, but always wise safety tips. Here are 10 of them:

Lineback Cattle

Lineback Cattle

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Cattle with lineback color patterns have occurred throughout the world in many breeds. In some cases this is a matter of random selection. In others, the markings are a distinct characteristic of the breed; while in some it is one of a number of patterns common to a local type. Considering that livestock of all classes have been imported to the United States, it is not surprising that we have our own Lineback breed.

The Milk and Human Kindness Part 1

The Milk and Human Kindness

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I know what it’s like to be trying to find one’s way learning skills without a much needed teacher or experienced advisor. I made a lot of cheese for the pigs and chickens in the beginning and shed many a tear. I want you to know that the skills you will need are within your reach, and that I will spell it all out for you as best I can. I hope it’s the next best thing to welcoming you personally at my kitchen door and actually getting to work together.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT