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Starting Your Farm

The Small Farmer’s Journal has decided to run editor and publisher Lynn R. Miller’s book Starting Your Farm as a serial series. Below is Chapter 3.

Chapter 3

“Men stumble over the truth from time to time but most pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing had happened.” – Winston Churchill

Measuring and Researching

In the last two chapters we discussed “Who wants to farm” and “The cost of farm acreage.” In this chapter we will discuss finding and learning about your future farm property.

WHERE TO LOOK FOR FARMS FOR SALE

After you have decided upon an area or region the all too simple way to proceed is to read real estate advertising and talk with local real estate agencies. It is my personal experience that to limit your search to listed advertised properties is a mistake. Especially if you have made a firm decision on just where you want to settle. Often people new to this process will make the mistake of going to one real estate office, describing their needs and accepting whatever agency offers, by way of information, as a complete view of just what is available. My wife and I knew we wanted to settle exactly where we are and asked local real estate agencies for help in locating available properties. We were laughed at and sent away time and time again. We were told there was no such property available- period. We almost gave up when an out of town realtor returned our call and suggested we come by and pick up a map to a remote, barely accessible, ranch property EXACTLY in the area we wanted. He said it wasn’t listed YET but thought it would come available soon. With is help we made an offer the very day it was listed and the rest is history.

Besides checking the ads and listings, drive the back roads, meet and talk with local folks, and visit the county seat and ask about acreage that night come up for auction sale because of unpaid back taxes. You are looking for people who MIGHT be selling soon, who are selling PRIVATELY without a real estate listing, who may be holding on to an abandoned farm property with the idea that no one would be interested in it, or who tried for a long time to sell and have tired or given up on the process. You need to leave your name and address with local banks and lending institutions with the information that you are looking to buy. You need to post little ads of your own stating what you are looking for. You need to snoop around.

You might find a farm or farms which are listed with real estate agencies. You might find farms which are for sale by private individuals who prefer not to deal with real estate agents.

You might find abandoned properties which belong to absentee owners including banks or holding companies who would be willing to sell or trade. Etc, etc… And each may require a different approach.

You may in your inquiries find realtors who have no listings that match your needs but who are quick to offer their services to you in finding a property. That is okay, HOWEVER if the realtor should ask of you that you sign a contract designating him or her as your agent I suggest it would NOT be in your best interest to do so.

Once you’ve found a farm you’re interested in, the work really starts. Now it’s time to research it and measure it against your needs and circumstance. Buried in this chapter is a master checklist which will hopefully ease what can be a trying process.

AFTER LOCATING A FARM PROPERTY

WITH A REALTOR

If the farm you’ve found is listed with a real estate agency you might be able to have them assist you in your work. But remember: REALTORS, and Real Estate Agencies, WORK FOR THEMSELVES, not for the buyer, not for the seller. They will almost always push to close a sale as fast as possible whether it’s to you or someone else who happens along. If you end up buying the wrong farm, or the right farm the wrong way, and find yourself in difficulty the realtor will still get his or her commission. Your best interests are not necessarily theirs. The honest, easy-going, intelligent real estate agent is rare. Be on your guard.

So first, let’s proceed as though a realtor were involved:

1) Get a copy of the listing agreement.

2) Ask if a recent title search has been done on the property and, if so, get a copy of the results.

3) Name and address of owner if somehow missing from listing agreement.

WARNING: DO NOT LET A REALTOR TRICK YOU INTO A PREMATURE ‘EARNEST MONEY AGREEMENT’ BY SUGGESTING IT’S THE ONLY WAY THEY CAN RELEASE THE ABOVE LISTED DOCUMENTS. SIGN NOTHING WITHOUT A REVIEW BY A KNOWLEDGEABLE THIRD PARTY (preferably a lawyer).

If a realtor is unwilling to provide the above information, suspect a problem with either property OR realtor OR both. (A good realtor will understand the necessity for this information and will work aggressively to anticipate all the questions you might have so as to be prepared. This is to the realtor’s best interest because it expedites the inquiry process and can speed a sale without undue hassle. If you get lucky you’ll find such a realtor and cut your “investigation” time way down.

NEXT

Assuming you’ve got the documents, look for the answers to these questions:

A) Who actually owns the listed property? What is the asking price? Does the seller require cash in full? Will seller allow a percentage down payment with owner financing? What down payment amount is required? What nature of owner financing (i.e. land sale contract, deed of trust, etc.) is acceptable and sought? Is there an existing mortgage against the property and is it assumable or transferable?

B) What is being bought? Exact acreage? Some paper evidence or any conditions as in guarantees of production levels or statements as to “sold as is” (more on this later). Improvements specified? A complete listing of all items to be included with purchase as well as those not going with property (i.e. portable outbuildings, irrigation equipment, above ground storage tanks, etc.)

C) Is anything currently owed against the property? What manner of contract security is involved? Are there any liens currently held against the property and by whom? Any collateral pledges as guarantor for other transactions? (Later, we’ll talk about STATUS of above.)

D) Any easements recorded? (more later)

E) Any rights withheld? (i.e. mineral or timber rights not transferring or transferrable and easements related to same)

F) Water rights recorded and filed? Age of same (more later)

G) Property taxes? Any in arrears?

H) Relevant districts? School, etc.

I) Any conditions for viewing property and improvements? (i.e. lengthy advance notices and restrictions on subsequent revisits during purchase negotiations.)

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Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Cole One Horse Planters

Cole One Horse Planters

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from issue:

The most populous single horse planting tools were made by Planet Junior. But they were by no means the only company producing these small farm gems. Most manufacturers included a few models and some, like Planet Junior, American and Cole specialized in the implement. What follows are fourteen different models from Cole’s, circa 1910, catalog. We published ten of these in volume 30 number three of Small Farmer’s Journal.

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

Hay Making with a Single Horse Part 4

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from issue:

Over the last few years of making hay, the mowing, turning and making tripods has settled into a fairly comfortable pattern, but the process of getting it all together for the winter is still developing. In the beginning I did what everyone else around here does and got it baled, but one year I decided to try one small stack. The success of this first stack encouraged me to do more, and now most of my hay is stacked loose.

Shed and Barn Plans

Below is a short piece from Starting Your Farm, by SFJ editor and publisher Lynn R. Miller. Click the links below to see Chapter One of Starting Your Farm and to view the book in our online bookstore. “You may have purchased a farm with a fantastic set of old barns and sheds. You, on […]

Amber Baker Letter

Hello from Michigan!

Dear Lynn Miller and staff, Hello from Michigan! We have only just started to read your Journal, and have really enjoyed it. First off, thank you for your publication. It is always a special occasion when the journal arrives, my favorite part would have to be when the seasoned farmer imparts some knowledge. Secondly, my dad is trying to figure out how to make a PTO forecart, but we are having difficulty finding information on people who have made their own, or what dimensions to make the cart out of and such.

Timber Wagon

Timber Wagon: The ÖSTERBY SMEDJA SV5 Forwarder

New equipment for draft horse use in silviculture (growing trees) is commercialized in Sweden at present by five companies, mainly specialized in forwarders and logging arches. This equipment is primarily adapted to the needs of forest enterprises in Scandinavia. Thus the forwarders are designed for short and small wood, for loading via hydraulic crane or an electric winch, or for manual loading without tools. This equipment is also adapted to the local topographical conditions. The rocky forests require strong off-road capabilities.

The Brabants Farm

The Brabants’ Farm

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from issue:

The Brabants’ Farm is a multi purpose farming operation whose main goal is to promote “horsefarming.” Our philosophy is to support the transformation of regional conventional agriculture and forestry into a sustainable, socially responsible, and less petroleum dependent based agriculture, by utilizing animal drawn technology (“horsefarming”), and by meeting key challenges in 21st century small scale agriculture and forestry in Colombia and throughout South America.

Cultivating Questions The Cost of Working Horses

Cultivating Questions: The Cost of Working Horses

Thanks to the many resources available in the new millennium, it is relatively easy for new and transitioning farmers to learn the business of small-scale organic vegetable production. Economic models of horse-powered market gardens, however, are still few and far between. To fill that information hole, I asked three experienced farmers to join me in tracking work horse hours, expenses and labor over a two-year period and to share the results in the Small Farmer’s Journal.

Barn Door Plans

Barn Door Plans

Good barn doors, ones that will last a lifetime of opening, sliding and swinging in the wind, require careful design and construction. In 1946 the Starline Co., a barn building firm from the midwestern US, compiled a book of barn plans. These two diagrams were in that book and presented excellent information.

Farm Drum 28 Eds Wester Star Custom Forecart

Farm Drum #28: Ed’s Western Star Custom Forecart

Lynn Miller and Ed Joseph examine a custom horse-drawn Forecart built by Ed’s company, Western Star Implement Co.

Farm Drum 25 Two-Way Plow

Farm Drum #25: Two-Way Plow

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Lynn Miller and Ed Joseph discuss the merits of the two-way plow, what to look for when considering purchase, and a little bit of the history of this unique IH / P&O model.

McCormick-Deering All Steel Corn Sheller

McCormick-Deering All-Steel Corn Sheller

from issue:

To obtain the best results in shelling, the machine should be run so that the crank makes about forty-five (45) revolutions per minute or the pulley shaft one hundred and seventy-five (175) revolutions per minute. When driving with belt be sure that this speed is maintained, as any speed in excess of this will have a tendency to cause the shelled corn to pass out with the cobs. The ears should be fed into the sheller point first.

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

The Use and Construction of Home Made Implements

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from issue:

It is now possible to purchase a make of machine to suit almost any condition if the money is available. There is no doubt that eventually they will be quite generally used. However, the dry farmers are at present hard pressed financially and in many instances the purchase of very much machinery is out of the question. For the man of small means or limited acreage, a homemade implement may be utilized at least temporarily.

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

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from issue:

The scoop has two steel sides about 5 feet apart sitting on steel runners made out of heavy 2 X 2 angle iron, there is a blade that is lowered and raised by use of a foot release which allows the weight of the blade to lower it and then lock in the down position and the forward motion of the horses to raise it and lock it in the up position. This is accomplished by a clever pivoting action where the tongue attaches to the snow scoop.

New Idea Manure Spreaders

New Idea Manure Spreaders

from issue:

There is no fixed method of loading. The best results are usually obtained by starting to load at the front end, especially in long straw manure. To get good results do not pile any manure into the cylinders. The height of the load depends upon the condition of the manure, the condition and nature of the field. Do not put on extra side boards. Be satisfied with the capacity of the machine and do not abuse it. Overloading will be the cause of loss of time sooner or later.

Horse Powered Snow Fencing and Sleigh Fencing

Horse Powered Snow Fencing and Sleigh Fencing

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We were planning on having our cattle out in a sheltered field for the winter but a busy fall and early snows meant our usual fencing tool was going to be ineffective. Through the grazing season we use a reel barrow which allows us to carry posts and pay out or take in wire with a wheel barrow like device which works really well. But not on snow. This was the motivation for turning our sleigh into a “snow fencer” or a “sleigh barrow”.

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

The Farm & Bakery Wagon

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The first step was to decide on an appropriate chassis, or “running gear.” Eventually I chose to go with the real deal, a wooden-wheeled gear with leaf springs rather than pneumatic tires. Wooden wheels last forever with care and are functional and look the part. I bought an antique delivery wagon that had been left outdoors as an ornament. I was able to reuse some of the wheels and wooden parts of the running gear.

John Deere No 12A Combine

John Deere No. 12-A Straight-Through Combine

from issue:

It is only natural for the owner of a new combine to want to try his machine as early as possible. This results in most new combines being started in the field before the crop is ready for combining. As soon as a binder is seen in the neighbor’s field, the urge to start becomes uncontrollable. When grain is ready for binding, it is not ready for straight combining.

Walsh No Buckle Harness

from issue:

When first you become familiar with North American working harness you might come to the erroneous conclusion that, except for minor style variations, all harnesses are much the same. While quality and material issues are accounting for substantive differences in the modern harness, there were also interesting and important variations back in the early twentieth century which many of us today either have forgotten or never knew about. Perhaps the most significant example is the Walsh No Buckle Harness.

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