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Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT

Horseshoeing Part 4A

A Text-Book of Horseshoeing

Part 4A

by A. Lungwitz and John W. Adams Copyright 1897

CHAPTER III continued

Shoeing Saddlers and Hunters.

The shoes for saddlers (Park Hacks) should be light, short, and fitted snug to prevent forging, interfering and pulling of the shoes. The hoof surface should cover the wall, white line and at least one-fourth of an inch of the margin of the sole. An average width of one inch is desirable. Both front and hind shoes should be fullered and concaved on the ground surface (convex iron). The Front Shoe:Length, should not project beyond the buttress more than one-eighth of an inch. Width, an inch at the middle on the branches, somewhat more at the toe, and less at the ends of the branches. Beveling, outer-border, base-narrow all around. The ends of the branches, and the heel calks, in case they are used, are bevelled strongly downward and forward under the foot. The toe is rolled from the inner edge of the web, and provided with a strong central clip. Six nails are sufficient (see Fig. 124).

Horseshoeing Part 4A

The Hind Shoe:Length, the shoe may project from one-fourth to threeeighths of an inch behind the buttresses. The toe should be well rounded and somewhat blunt so that the horn of the toe will project beyond the shoe an amount equal to one-half the thickness of the wall. Width, somewhat less than the front shoe. The branches are of equal thickness, and should carry heel calks whose height equals the thickness of the shoe. To guard against interfering the inside calk may be omitted and the inner branch thickened, fitted snug and bevelled strongly base-narrow. Clips are to be placed at inner and outer toes. Seven nails are sufficient.

The shoes for hunters do not differ materially from those suitable for Park Hacks. The hunter’s shoes are somewhat lighter, and to guard against injury to the feet by over-reaching and interfering, and against the shoes being pulled by stiff mire and by treading, the shoes must represent merely a prolongation of the hoofs, i.e., must be no longer and no wider than the hoofs themselves. The front shoe of narrow, convex iron is rolled at the toe and has a central toe clip. Forging heel calks are advisable.

The hind shoe is set back at the toe, carries inner and outer toe clips, an outer heel calk and an inner interfering branch. Seven nails.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

Shoeing Runners.

Racing plates are intended solely to prevent excessive wear and breaking away of the wall, and to insure a secure foothold upon the ground. The shoes are made as light as possible, but they must not be so narrow and thin that they will bend or break. They are therefore made of steel, wide enough to cover the bearing surface of the wall, white line, and an eighth of an inch of the sole. The ground surface is divided into two sharp edges by a deep, clean, fullering continued entirely around the shoe. Heel calks are of no advantage. Front and hind shoes carry six nails. The last nails are well back in the quarters to prevent the spreading or bending of the light shoe. Front shoes are provided with central toe-clips; hind shoes carry inner and outer toe clips and are set slightly under at the toe (see Figs. 125, 126, 127, 128). An average weight running plate for a medium-sized hoof is three to four ounces.

Shoeing Trotters and Pacers.

The shoes worn while the trotter or pacer is in training are somewhat heavier than those worn while racing. Training shoes will average 40 ounces to the set, while trotting and pacing plates weigh from 16 to 28 ounces to the set. In short, extreme speed at running, pacing or trotting demands as light a shoe as can be made, which will at the same time furnish a bearing for wall, white line and a narrow rim of the sole.

In style of shoes there is no marked difference between trotters and pacers – except in the hind shoes of pacers that cross-fire. Open shoes predominate. Bar-shoes are used, not to give frog pressure, but to stiffen and prevent spreading of the shoe, when after a few days’ wear it becomes thin at the toe. The average trotting and pacing plate is so thin that it would be weakened by fullering, so most of them are stamped (punched). Six nails are sufficient. Clips are seldom needed.

Pacers usually require a low circular grab or “rim” at the toe. This is set flush with the outer border, is about one-eighth of an inch high and is brazed on. Trotting plates are usually without toe calks, though many are fullered across the toe (corrugated) to furnish a grip upon the ground.

On both trotting and pacing shoes the heel calks should be low and sharp and should run straight forward so as not to retard the forward glide of the foot as it is set to earth heel first. The heel calk serves chiefly to prevent the lateral twist of the foot as the horse takes the sharp turns of the track.

Freak shoes, toe-weights, side-weights, excessive length of hoof or toe, and other unscientific appliances and methods of shoeing speed horses are being gradually eliminated, and today the fastest are dressed and shod in accordance with the principles enunciated in this book.

Fitting Shoes to Heavy Draft-Horses.

What has been previously said concerning shoeing holds good here; however, the conditions of shoeing are somewhat different in heavy horses, and particularly with respect to hoofs which, without being clearly diseased, have been injured by shoeing. The entire operation requires more circumspection, because it is more difficult. In many cases one will find that the width that has been advised for the outer branch of the shoe at the quarter is not sufficient. Indeed, if a horse has wry feet, and there is unequal distribution of weight within the hoof, and we attempt in shoeing it to follow to the letter the directions given on preceding pages, we would be apt to favor the perpetuation of the defect. In such cases the slant of the wall at the quarters is of the greatest practical value to us in estimating the proper width for the shoe at this point.

When uniform setting down of the hoof and uniform wear of the shoe are desired, every point in the coronary band in the posterior half of the foot must receive support by the shoe. This applies particularly to the outer halves of hoofs that are extremely base-narrow. If, for example, the coronet of the outer quarter projects beyond the plantar border of the quarter, the outer branch of the shoe from the last nail-hole back must be kept so wide (full) that an imaginary perpendicular line dropped from the coronary band will just touch the outer border of the shoe. The inner branch, on the contrary, should follow the edge of the wall as closely as possible. Furthermore, the new shoe should be given more curve, – that is, made wider and fitted more full where the old shoe shows greatest wear. The principal thought should be to set the shoe, which should always be regarded as the base of support of the hoof, farther towards the more strongly worn side. Such a practice renders superfluous the wide-spread and popular custom of bending outward the outer quarter and heel-calk of hind shoes. From the manner in which a horse travels and the wear of the old shoe, we estimate the distance that the branches of the shoe should be set from the middle line of the hoof. If in following out this plan the bearing-surface of the outer quarter of the wall is not completely covered, the quarter will be pinched and squeezed inward; this should be prevented by a broader branch punched so deeply that the holes will fall upon the white line (Fig. 129).

Horseshoeing Part 4A

When the shoer has satisfied himself that the shoe fulfills every requirement and fits perfectly, it is to be cooled, the holes opened with an oiled pritchel, and the shoe brightened with a file. In filing, all sharp edges should be removed. If a shoe is to be filed upon the outer border, to give it a neater appearance, the filing should be done lengthways of the shoe, and not crossways; of course, the shoe must not be bent by being improperly clamped in the vise.

It indicates much greater skill in making and fitting shoes when they look clean and finished with little or no filing.

In the preceding remarks I have insisted upon a horizontal bearing-surface for all shoes, with the single exception of shoes provided with the rolled toe (rolling motion). As far as I can judge from the literature of shoeing, and from what I have seen with my own eyes in many countries, this is the most wide-spread practice. In Germany, on the other hand, there is another method, followed in the military shoeing-shops, which consists in placing the bearing-surface of the shoe as nearly as possible at right angles to the slant of the wall. According to this method the bearing-surface of the shoe, depending upon the direction of the wall (viewed from in front, from behind, and from the side), should incline more or less, now backward, now inward, now horizontal, and now outward. Shoes for wide hoofs are given a bearing-surface which inclines inward, while for narrow hoofs the shoes have a horizontal bearing-surface. Shoes for wry hoofs have a bearing-surface which inclines downward and inward for the slanting wall, and for the steeper wall a horizontal bearing-surface, which towards the end of the branch may incline slightly downward and outward. Besides, the bearing-surface of the ends of the branches, viewed from the side, has a backward and downward inclination. This method is practicable only in part.

I. Nailing the Shoe.

This is that act of horseshoeing by which the shoe is fastened to the hoof by special nails called hoof-nails or horseshoe-nails, which are driven through the shoe and horny wall.

At present there are hand-made and machine-made horseshoe-nails. Both kinds should be made of the best wrought iron. The nails must be slender, wedge-shaped, and twice as wide as they are thick. Thickness and length must be in proper relation to each other. We should never choose a nail which is longer than is absolutely necessary to hold the shoe; six to eight sizes are sufficient for all purposes.

The rough nails (hand-made), before being used, must undergo a special shaping to prepare them to pass through the wall easily and in the desired direction. This preparation is called shaping and beveling. In doing this we should see to it that the nails are made smooth, and even, but are not hammered harder than is absolutely necessary, because the lighter one can hammer the nails the better they will be.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

Furthermore, we must give the nail that form which will insure its passing through the horn straight and not in a curve; with this object in view, the nail is to be slightly curved so that the side which is turned towards the frog in driving (inside) will be a little concave, the opposite side convex (Figs. 130, 3, and 131, No. 10), since it is known that a straight nail always passes through the horn in a curve, and not only does not long remain tight, but is quite likely to press upon and injure the soft tissues of the foot.

At the point of the nail the bevel is to be so placed that it will form a short one-sided wedge with the slanting side directed from within to without (Figs. 130, 3, and 131, d). A short bevel is suitable for nails that are to be driven low, while a long bevel makes it possible to drive them high. The bevel should never form a hook; it must always be straight, should be sharp but not thin, and under no conditions incomplete (defective).

Machine-made nails, smooth, polished, bevelled, and ready for use, are, for many reasons, to be preferred to hand-made nails, though the latter are rather tougher (see Fig. 131).

Horseshoeing Part 4A

Before the shoe is nailed on it should be cooled and again carefully examined by a competent shoer, who should then place it upon the hoof, where it should be critically observed to see whether it really fulfills every requirement of a properly fitting shoe. Afterwards, the least fault or defect must be remedied, and then the work of nailing it begins. By nailing, the shoe is firmly and durably fastened to the hoof, in doing which the horn of the wall is spared so far as possible, the elasticity of the hoof borne always in mind, and wounding of the pododerm entirely avoided. The nails must in all cases penetrate the white line and pass through the wall in such a straight direction that they will appear neither too high nor too low upon its outer surface. In the first case there is considerable danger of pricking or close-nailing, and in the latter the nail-holes will tear out easily when the nails are being clinched.

In driving a nail, it should be held in the fingers as long as possible in the direction in which it is desired that it shall pass through the horn. A nail should be driven cautiously, with attention to its sinking and sound, and yet with enough force so that at each stroke it will penetrate from one-fifth to one-fourth of an inch. The power required at each stroke will depend upon the hardness of the horn and the size of the nail. Fearless driving and timorous tapping should not be allowed.

Nails, which at a depth of five-eighths of an inch are still going soft, or which bend and give a dull sound, or cause pain, should be immediately withdrawn.

According to the size of the horse and his hoofs the nails should be driven from five-eighths to an inch and five-eighths high, and as even as possible. As soon as a nail is driven its point should be immediately bent down towards the shoe in order to prevent injuries. The heads of all the nails should then be gone over with a hammer and driven down solidly into the nail-holes, the hoof being meanwhile supported in the left hand. Pincers are then held under the bent nails and they are more sharply bent by light blows upon the nail-heads. The points of the nails are now nipped off near the hoof, the horn which has been thrown out just below the clinches by bending the nails down is removed with rasp or gouge, and the ends of the nails bent down still more, but not quite flush with the wall. This operation is called “clinching.” A clinching-block or a pair of ordinary blacksmith’s pincers is then placed under the end of the nail, now called a clinch, and by light blows (in doing this the nail must not bend within the wall) upon the head the clinch is turned closer to the surface of the wall; finally, with the front edge of the nailhammer the clinch is hammered down flush with the wall. On the inner half of the wall the clinches should not be felt on stroking the wall with the fingers. The small amount of horn that projects beyond the shoe around the toe may be carefully rasped away in the direction in which the wall slants, but never higher than the clinches; finally, the sharp lower edge of the wall is to be removed by carrying the corner of the rasp around between the shoe and the horn.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

A clinch is sufficiently long when it equals the width of the nail at that point.

It is of advantage to use a shoeing-bock or foot-stool in clinching the nails on the front hoofs. The hind hoofs may be clinched in the hands. Then the horse should be led out and again moved in order to see whether or not the new shoeing has actually accomplished what was desired. Finally, the entire hoof should be given a thin layer of hoof-salve.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

K. Horseshoes More or Less Deficient in Desirable Qualities.

Machine Shoes.

1. Machine Shoes of Wrought Iron. – They are half-finished and finished. Though machine shoes with few exceptions show no distinction between front and hind, or left and right, with correct punching for these different feet, but usually present one form in different sizes, yet, unfortunately, they are in high favor with horseshoers, because they may be used for both summer and winter and for bar shoes.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

For these reasons we cannot approve of machine shoes.

2. Finished Cast Shoes. – They are of four kinds, – ordinary cast shoes, cast shoes with rope buffer, cast shoes with fiber buffer, and cast shoes fenestrated to hold a rubber buffer. Ordinary cast shoes of correct form and proper punching designed by Grossbauer, of Vienna, are sold by Hannes’ Sons, of that city.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

Rope Shoes. – These shoes have a groove on the ground surface, in which rests a tarred rope, which greatly diminishes slipping on smooth pavement. For this reason alone they are extensively used in the large cities of Germany. Since the open rope shoe, when half worn out, will warp, the bar rope shoe is more satisfactory and more extensively used (Figs. 141-144).

Horseshoeing Part 4A

Before fitting the shoe the rope must be removed. After the nails are driven it is laid in the groove and hammered into place. Rope shoes can seldom be fitted properly to hoofs other than those which are healthy and of regular shape.

Fiber Shoes. – These have a groove on the ground surface into which layers of linen fiber belting have been tightly pressed. The fiber cannot be removed, and therefore the shoes cannot be heated, but must be fitted cold. The nail-holes are placed between the fiber and the outer border of the shoe, and are punched too light. The bearing surface of the shoe is unsupported, so that when the shoe is half worn out, it warps. There is no distinction between rights and lefts.

Rubber shoes have all the defects of fiber shoes, and one more. The hoof surface is covered with canvas, which under normal and acute-angled hoofs wears through under the quarters and leads to loosening of the last nails.

L. Rubber Pads.

The increasing use of asphalt, tarvia and other hard, smooth and slippery materials for surfacing city streets and country highways has not only made traveling in flat and even in calked shoes precarious, but has aggravated all those injuries produced by concussion.

To prevent slipping and the injurious effects of concussion a great many shoes have been devised, in which are incorporated such materials as hemp rope, linen fibre, papier maché, cork, wood, bast, felt and rubber, but all fail in greater or lesser degree to meet practical requirements.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

Rubber, though the most expensive of these materials, is the most resilient and takes the best grip on smooth pavement. A pad of rubber, wide enough to cover the branches of the frog alone, or the branches of the frog and the buttresses of the hoof, firmly cemented to a leather sole, constitutes the modern rubber pad (Figs. 145, 146, 147).

The frog-and-buttress pad used with a short shoe is to be preferred to the earlier frog pad which takes a full shoe.

Horseshoeing Part 4A

The advantages of rubber pads are:

1. They prevent slipping upon asphalt and other smooth, dry surfaces.

2. They diminish concussion, and are valuable in the prevention and treatment of sore heels, dry and moist corns, bruised sole, and incipient side bone.

3. They give frog pressure, develop the frog and tend to prevent contraction of the quarters and those lesions which may follow contraction, as corns, cracks of bars and quarters, laminitis of the quarters and thrush.

A rubber pad should not be used:

1. In contraction of one or both quarters, when the frog is too much shrunken to bear upon the pad.

2. In lameness from well developed side bones.

3. In navicular bursitis (“navicular disease”).

4. In thrush, or canker of frog or sole.

Rubber pads, light, medium and heavy, are made in all sizes and are suitable for all classes of horses, from the light roadster to the heavy draft type. The short shoe with which they are used reaches the middle of the quarters. The pad surface (upper surface) of the ends of the branches should be bevelled to conform to the pad, and to hold it firmly against the frog and buttresses. The thickness of the shoe should equal two-thirds the thickness of the pad, so that when fitted one-third of the thickness of the pad shall project below the ground-surface of the shoe. The shoe should be provided with a strong toe-clip. With the heavy, thick pad of a draft-horse a low toe-calk may be used, but heel calks should never be put on a short shoe. Pads are seldom necessary on the hind feet.

Spotlight On: Equipment & Facilities

Permanent Corncribs

A short piece on the construction of corncribs.

Pferdestarke

German Version of Horse Progress Days: Pferdestark

by:
from issue:

There is a rather neat phrase in German – ‘wenn schon, denn schon’ – which literally translates as ‘enough already, then already;’ but what it actually means is ‘if a something is worth doing, it is worth doing well. That would be a fitting description of Pferdestark, the German version of Horse Progress Days. For sheer variety of different breeds of draught horses, regional and national harness styles, or for that matter, languages or hats, it would be hard to beat Pferdestark.

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

Horse Powered Snow Scoop

by:
from issue:

The scoop has two steel sides about 5 feet apart sitting on steel runners made out of heavy 2 X 2 angle iron, there is a blade that is lowered and raised by use of a foot release which allows the weight of the blade to lower it and then lock in the down position and the forward motion of the horses to raise it and lock it in the up position. This is accomplished by a clever pivoting action where the tongue attaches to the snow scoop.

Mini Horse Haying

Mini Horse Haying

by:
from issue:

The first mini I bought was a three year old gelding named Casper. He taught me a lot about what a 38 inch mini could do just by driving me around the neighborhood. He didn’t cover the miles fast, but he did get me there! It wasn’t long before several more 38 inch tall minis found their way home. I presently have four minis that are relatively quiet, responsive to the bit, and can work without a lot of drama.

LittleField Notes Mower Notes

LittleField Notes: Mower Notes

by:
from issue:

The horse drawn mowing machine is a marvel of engineering. Imagine a pair of horses turning the energy of their walking into a reciprocal cutting motion able to drop acres of forage at a time without ever burning a drop of fossil fuel. And then consider that the forage being cut will fuel the horses that will in turn cut next year’s crop. What a beautiful concept! Since I’ve been mowing some everyday I’ve had lots of time to think about the workings of these marvelous machines.

Walsh No Buckle Harness

from issue:

When first you become familiar with North American working harness you might come to the erroneous conclusion that, except for minor style variations, all harnesses are much the same. While quality and material issues are accounting for substantive differences in the modern harness, there were also interesting and important variations back in the early twentieth century which many of us today either have forgotten or never knew about. Perhaps the most significant example is the Walsh No Buckle Harness.

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

Rebuilding the New Idea Manure Spreader

by:
from issue:

To select a Model 8, 10 or 10A for rebuilding, if you have a few to choose from – All New Idea spreaders have the raised words New Idea, Coldwater, Ohio on the bull gear. The No. 8 is being rebuilt in many areas due to the shortage of 10A’s and because they are still very popular. The 10A is the most recent of the spreaders and all three can be rebuilt. The 10 and 10A are the most popular for rebuilding as parts are available for putting these spreaders back into use.

Fjordworks Plowing the Market Garden Part 2

Fjordworks: Plowing the Market Garden Part 2

Within the context of the market garden, the principal aim for utilizing the moldboard is to initiate the process of creating a friable zone for the root systems of direct-seeded or transplanted cash crops to establish themselves in, where they will have sufficient access to all the plant nutrients, air, and moisture they require to bear successful fruits. To this end, it is critical for good plant growth to render the soil into a fine-textured crumbly condition and to ensure there is no compaction within the root zone.

Between Ourselves & Our Land

Between Ourselves & Our Land

by:
from issue:

Since being introduced to the straddle row cultivator last year in hilling our potatoes, I have been excited to experiment with different tools mounted under the versatile machine. Like the famed Allis Chalmers G or Farmall Cub my peers of the internal combustion persuasion utilize on their vegetable farms, this tool can help maximize efficiency in many ways on the small farm.

Bobsled Building Plans

Bobsled Building Plans

Here are two, old-style, heavy-duty, bobsled building plans featuring the sort of sleds you might have found in New England and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. (In fact you might get lucky and find them still.) These are designed to haul cord wood on the sled frame.

Geiss New-Made Hay Loader

Gies’ New-Made Hayloader

by:
from issue:

I was sitting on a 5 gallon bucket staring at the hayloader. I had a significant amount of time and money invested. My wife, the great motivating influence in my life, walked up and asked what I was thinking. I was thinking about dropping the whole project and I told her so. She told me that it had better work since I had spent so much money and time on it already. She doesn’t talk that way very often so I figured I had better come up with a solution.

John Deere No 12A Combine

John Deere No. 12-A Straight-Through Combine

from issue:

It is only natural for the owner of a new combine to want to try his machine as early as possible. This results in most new combines being started in the field before the crop is ready for combining. As soon as a binder is seen in the neighbor’s field, the urge to start becomes uncontrollable. When grain is ready for binding, it is not ready for straight combining.

Two Log Cart Designs from Canada

Two Log Cart Designs from Canada

by:
from issue:

The problem horseloggers face is reducing skidding friction yet maintaining enough friction for holdback on steep skids. The cart had to be as simple and maneuverable as the basic two wheel log arch which dangles logs on chokers. We wanted it to be light, low, with no tongue weight, no lift motor to maintain, no arch to jam up and throw the teamster in a turn, and a low center of draft.

Fjordworks Cultural Evolution Part 1

Fjordworks: Cultural Evolution Part 1

For the teamster who first and foremost just plain loves driving horses, hitching the team to a fully restored and well-oiled cultivator is a wonderful way to spend time with horses. For those intrigued by the intricacies of machines and systems, the riding cultivator offers endless opportunities for tweaking and innovation. And for those interested in herbicide free, ecologically produced vegetable and field crops, the riding cultivator is a practical and precise tool for successful cultivation.

Homemade Ground-Drive PTO Forecart

Homemade Ground-Drive PTO Forecart

by:
from issue:

As we start, consider a few things when building a pto cart. Are big drive tires necessary? Is a lot of weight needed? Imagine the cart in use. Try to see it working where you normally go and where you almost never go. Will it be safe and easy to mount or dismount? Can you access the controls of the implement conveniently? Is it easy to hook and unhook? Where is the balance point? I’m sure you will think of other details as you daydream about it.

Building an Inexpensive Pole Barn

Building an Inexpensive Pole Barn

by:
from issue:

The inside of the barn can be partitioned into stalls of whatever size we need, using portable panels secured to the upright posts that support the roof. We have a lot of flexibility in use for this barn, making several large aisles or a number of smaller stalls. We can take the panels out or move them to the side for cleaning the barn with a tractor, or for using the barn the rest of the year for machinery.

Is This Mower Worth Rebuilding

Is This Mower Worth Rebuilding?

If you are in a position to choose which make and model of mower you might wish to work on might I put in my vote for either the McD/Internationals #7 & #9 or the John Deere Big Four. These were the last and most plentiful models made and some parts are still available with a fair measure of aftermarket cutter bar parts which are interchangeable.

Spring Tooth Cultivator Equi Idea Canadese

Spring Tooth Cultivator EQUI IDEA Canadese

Based and inspired by old small french-made cultivators called “Canadien”, the modern version of the Italian “Canadese” revives all the characteristics of this very popular tool amongst smallholders of the bygone times. The Canadese particularly suits, with its light weight and handy construction, small gardens or vegetable fields, especially in hilly or terraced landscapes, where the area for maneuvering at the headlands is limited, requiring that the implement has to be moved often by hand.

Small Farmer's Journal

Small Farmer's Journal
PO Box 1627
Sisters, Oregon 97759
800-876-2893
541-549-2064
agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com
Mon - Thu, 8am - 4pm PDT